The Most Dangerous Idea in Mental Health by Ed Cara

USA, Pacific Standard: The Science of Society. November 3, 2014.

Ed Cara Mr. Cara lives in New York City. He writes about the intersection of science and social justice at his blog, Grumbles and Rumbles.

Excerpts:

“The belief that hidden memories can be “recovered” in therapy should have been exorcised years ago, when a rash of false memories dominated the airwaves, tore families apart, and put people on the stand for crimes they didn’t commit. But the mental health establishment does not always learn from its mistakes—and families are still paying the price.

Nearly four years ago, Tom and his ex-wife sent their daughter to an eating-disorder clinic called the Castlewood Treatment Center, outside St. Louis. In her five months there, Anna grew to believe she had recovered memories of a deeply abusive childhood that she had previously banished from her conscious mind.”

Full article retrieved 11-18-14.

I am adding Mr. Cara’s article to my growing list of historical developments of the false memory syndrome craze, repressed memory theories, multiple personality, dissociative identity disorder and others. Society can no longer ignore the fact that some of these treatments began way back in the 1905, and earlier, but they still thrive today – one hundred years later.

The ever growing list of family tragedies stemming from some types of psychotherapies based on pseudoscience that may treat medical disorders with personal beliefs and politics, rather than science, will no longer be ignored on this blog.

The organizations listed below, to my knowledge, have not taken major steps to insist on science-based treatment for people seeking mental health care. These goofy-therapy debacles that were largely ignored by the United States organizations, like the American Psychiatric Association, the American Psychological Association, the American Medical Association and most recently the US backed National Association of Social Workers – who recently offered continuing education credits for attendees of a recent conference on multiple personalities, disguised in my opinion, as a trauma and dissociation conference held in Seattle, Washington, USA, must be include for an accurate history.

 

 

Dr. Phil Exposes the Flaws & Fallacies of Repressed Memories

Thank you, Dr. Phil for your show:

Sex Abuse and Murder:

A Daughter’s Repressed Memories or Lies?

Air Date  February 17, 2014
Summary:
Tracy says that about three years ago, disturbing memories from her childhood began to surface about sex abuse and murder — involving her mother, Donna, and now-deceased father, Alan. Tracy claims that she and her sister, Kelly, were molested by their father and grandfather, and alleges that Donna killed Kelly’s best friend and buried the girl in their backyard. Donna and Kelly vehemently deny the claims, calling Tracy “delusional.” Emotions run high when Tracy faces her family on Dr. Phil’s stage, including Donna, whom she hasn’t seen or spoken to in more than a year. Is Tracy remembering actual events, or are these fictionalized memories? Plus, don’t miss part two tomorrow, when Donna agrees to take a polygraph test to clear her name. Will Tracy get the answers she’s looking for? This program contains strong sexual content. Viewer discretion advised.
~~~~~~~~
The argument regarding the truth of repressed memories boils down to one question:
Are decade old memories, newly discovered, accurate?

I do not think that repressed memories are lies because a lie is a deliberate attempt to deceive. Repressed memories that erupt decades after an event cannot be 100% accurate as the science of human memory repeatedly shows, and proves in a laboratory, that memories in general are a confabulated rendition of truth, falsehood, and fill-in-the blanks.

I was once caught in a web of repressed memories much like that displayed by the guest on the Dr. Phil show. And like her, my memories grew during therapy and were reinforced by those around me. My decade old memories morphed into a story that, when investigated, were found to be utter nonsense.

I am grateful that the Dr. Phil show educated the public about the controversy that continues to swirl around the veracity of repressed memories. When science and investigations are employed, we have a chance of getting to the truth of these memories. When people are being accused of heinous crimes that never occurred, we have a responsibility to seek the truth and scant memories of events that may or may not have occurred decades earlier are simply not reliable.

The family who told their horror story regarding accusations of murder and sexual assault based on the repressed memories of a family member now have a chance to recover and heal from the toxic psychotherapy that tore at their souls. Science prevails in this case and I wonder how many other families could benefit from evidence rather than dubious memories of wrong doing.

It’s time to pressure the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association, the two most influential organizations responsible for overseeing mental health care practitioners in the United States, to hold their members accountable for their actions.

When patient’s welfare is sacrificed for theories and beliefs held by the therapist – it’s simply a crime against humanity.

The Warping of the American Women’s Movement

The credibility of the “survivor movement” reached a higher level in the late 1980s when victims of  sexual abuse perceived that American culture had changed significantly in their favor. Women rejoiced believing they were finally able to speak of their silent sexual abuses and that society was ready to listen and take action. Some voices were heard publicly -  others privately.

Women, including me, had marched for equality and the right to be heard in the hot, summer streets of Washington D.C.. We carried banners and colorful flags and sang our songs for years – years that stretched into decades, but our time had come.

By the early 1990s, the survivor movement warped into the “victims” movement. It wasn’t a calculated change, but one that occurred when the psychology industry grasped onto the struggles of women who were sexually abused. Born from the marriage between vulnerable women and psychotherapy was repressed memory therapy. A new technique believed to help women recall buried memories of sexual abuse. The victim movement warped yet again when some women remembered satanic ritual abuse and other atrocities that included human sacrifices and violent torture.

Over the next decade, while women flooded therapist’s offices remembering all sorts of abuses, the large survivor movement took yet another turn that was not apparent until years later. After years of repressed memory therapy, an increasing number of women realized that the psychology industry took advantage of them when they were vulnerable and in need of medical care. In a variety of ways, many of came to understand that they had not been sexually abused, but had been led to believe so by overzealous therapists who refused to hear their protestations.

What happened to those of us swept into the psychotherapy machine? We were silenced. Women, silenced again. The women’s movement had been fractured by a tenacious psychotherapy beast unwilling, and by then, unable to back down and confess its wrongdoing. But this time the silencing was done by other women.

It was a difficult time for me because I as an activist, I fought in the streets of Washington with thousands of other women and now my voice was silenced. No one wanted to hear that I was coerced into believing I had been sexually abused when I had not been because it was feared that women who had been abused would once again be silenced and disregarded.

I don’t know if Americans understand the power, might, and influence of the psychology industry. The beast keeps many women in its claws by supporting and encouraging the “victim” mentality. This group of women will not relinquish their position in society as abuse survivors who demand understanding and support by the rest of us. By the increasing number of Internet blogs and groups alone, it is clear that some women will never be healed no matter how much therapy is received or to what depth therapists encourage them to fall.

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On Bullshit Psychology

 I enjoy reading essays penned by people who tell is like they see it. Well done article IMHO. JB

“I was going to write this post on ” pop psychology ” but decided that moniker just doesn’t cut it, and the scope is too limited and easy.  What we are referring to when we say “pop psychology” is 99% bullshit.  Not too hard to see that, if you read 50 of those books and your life still sucks .  But for that matter, what passes for “evidence-based” psychology is still probably at least 60% bullshit.  I’m going to go beyond bashing the obvious targets that lard up our bookshelves, the self-help books and so forth.  I want to target much of what clinical psychology that the public encounters eagerly defines itself as.  It’s not “popular” necessarily, but it is awfully self-important and mostly wrong and potentially damaging to the public.  Actually, So let’s call it what it is: Bullshit psychology.

The main premise of bullshit psychology is that there is something wrong with you, and you need psychology to fix what’s wrong with you.  This is the first premise of bullshit.  I want to highlight this premise because all else in bullshit psychology rests on it.  You are broken, we will fix you.  We, the experts, will provide you the information to fix yourself.  Bullshit.”

 

 

About Dr. Rinewine

Retrieved 08-12-14, Full Article: Portlandmindful.com

Are Primary Causes of MPD Psychotherapists? by Scott Mendelson, M.D.

Dr. Mendelson examines the explosion of multiple personalities in the United States between 1980 to 1986 which can be viewed as a culture-bound syndrome – one most closely associated with the United States rather than a world wide mental illness seen in many other countries.
Scott Mendelson, M.D.

Scott Mendelson, M.D.

Posted: January 31, 2011 04:55 PM

“Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), or, as it is referred to in most recent version of the manual DSM-IV, Dissociative Identity Disorder, is a genuine psychiatric disorder. However, the numbers of cases of MPD are far higher in North America than in any other part of the world. Many suspect that this surplus of MPD cases is the product of American culture and over-indulgent psychiatrists and psychotherapists.”

In a 2004 review for the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, the American psychiatrist, Dr. August Piper, remarked that more MPD cases were discussed in the medical literature in the five years after inclusion in the DSM-III than in the preceding two centuries. Between 1980 and 1986, more than 6000 patients in the United States were diagnosed with the disorder. Champions of the disorder, such as psychiatrist Colin A. Ross, began to claim that MPD was rampant…”

Most psychiatrists believe that the diagnosis of MPD has gotten entirely out of hand, and it isn’t merely due to the unexpectedly large number of patients being diagnosed with the illness. … Personalities began to propagate like locusts. … Yet, reports of patients with hundreds of separate alter personalities became routine. For example, Dr. Richard P. Kluft, a psychiatrist specializing in the treatment of MPD at the University of Pennsylvania, reported in a 1988 paper that one of his patients had over 4000 “alters”.

Others suffer delusions and thought disorders bizarre enough to warrant diagnoses of schizophrenia rather than MPD. Still, the question remains as to what degree leading questions and indulgences of vivid imaginations have prompted the alternate “personalities” to come into being.”

“The sufferers of Multiple Personalities also appear to feed off each other’s imaginations. Websites and Internet discussion groups for “multiples” abound, and sufferers take pride in how many alter personalities populate their minds. Pseudoscientific jargon flows freely in sites aiming to provide a technical basis for the illness and snare “multiples” for cutting edge psychotherapy. … This is pure baloney.”

Full Article: Huffington Post Retrieved 4/2/11.

Multiple Personality Disorder and other culture bound psychiatric conditions are discussed in Dr. Mendelson’s new book, “The Great Singapore Penis Panic and the Future of American Mass Hysteria“.

Psychiatric Nonsense at Noon: “FMSwordF”

My, my, my, I have a rather humorous comment to report on today. If only the commenter, Christopher, read the article below and was outraged that a mental health facility was accumulating medical malpractice suits instead of coining stupid acronyms and failing at insulting me, perhaps a dialogue would have started. Instead, I am dealing rather humorously with Christopher’s lack of education and moral fortitude.

Christopher commented to my post entitled: Treatment Facility, Mercy Ministries: Harm Continues to Women Patients? The post was to update readers that there is a 4th medical malpractice suit filed against this organization and those who run it. But I digress.

Christopher came to this blog intending to be obnoxious and condescending to me, but instead only managed to tickle my funny bone. Christopher didn’t mean to be humorous, but heck, when something’s funny, I’m gonna laugh – and share.

Uneducated and vindictive commenters like Christopher seem like disgruntled pseudo-survivors who are more interested in attacking me instead of the issues I report on. Choosing to demean me (which never works) rather than discussing what is going on at Mercy Ministries 4th medical malpractice suit is pathetic and glaringly shows that pseudo-survivors are not interested in safe and effective mental health care.

Back to Christopher. Trying  to coin a new phrase instead of working to make mental-health care safe and affordable – while simultaneously thinking my heart will break at personal insults, is deplorable. But heck, you have to give ‘em “The Psychiatric Nonsense at Noon Brown-Banana Award” for trying. Christopher’s new phrase is: FMSwordF.  Mean anything to you? Of course not. I, on the other hand, am an accomplished fencer with real swords resting here and there around the house, so what I saw was the word “sword” smack dag in the middle of FMSwordF.  Nah, I told myself, this isn’t a cute fencing term so I read on.

Christopher came here intending to trash the False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF), but didn’t want to write out the full acronym of the organization because s/he claims there is no such “thing” as false memory syndrome. OK, fine with me if Christopher wants to make a point (I’d be careful though because there are real swords about 6 feet from where I’m sitting and they have real points) but I digress. FMS is a well established term meaning “false memory syndrome” used to describe remembering an event that, in reality, never occurred. It’s been used for decades. Most people familiar with the term FMS know it is not a syndrome per se but that didn’t prevent Christopher from trying one more time – to make a lame point.

Well, well, well. What did Christopher accomplish with the FMSwordF mumbo-jumbo-nonsense besides winning a blog post dedicated to the absurdity they spouted?

The post, see below, is about the harm sustained by patients at this particular facility. Hey Christopher, what do you think about Mercy Ministries?

Article here

Comment below:

Christopher’s comment: Submitted on 2014/11/10 at 12:03 PM

“It is evident that your inability to harmonize and process your own past experiences is what drives this very bizarre conspiracy theory-driven vendetta against those with Dissociative Identity Disorder. Your personal experience is not a valid foundation on which to launch projections onto the different and individual experiences of others. Perhaps you ought find a more productive pasttime [sic]than passing your days seeking to unearth further means of discrediting and undermining a group of people you are openly and admittedly not a part of.

I will also point out that the vast majority of your “supporters” are emotionally-lax women who openly profess issues with their purportedly dissociative mother; hardly an objective point of reference. Best of luck sorting yourself out.”

“`

p.s. Christopher, dear, what is “emotionaly-lax women”? Harmonize and process? Does that have something to do with digesting my brown bag lunch? What is “purportedly dissociative mother”. What does offering me “luck sorting yourself out” mean? I have supporters? Wow, thanks for the kudos!

You can count on me Always being here to report on mental health practices that harm, or have the potential to harm, patients and their families. Just one of those irritating facts of life

If you want to know who the blogger is behind the hilarious “FMswordF Brown Bag Brown Banana Award , good luck. I was banned from a comment immediately. So, dear public, if you have a cause to take up, surely this one led by a nameless person telling you nothing about it, toss your money out the window – where I can catch it on the way down.

Cheers!

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British False Memory Society

British False Memory Society

About

“False memory is the phenomenon in which a person is convinced a memory is true when it is not. It was first postulated and diagnosed more than 100 years ago. More recently, clinical evidence suggests it is more widespread than had previously been appreciated.”

In particular, it is creating severe problems in the field of alleged sexual abuse. Naturally, the Society acknowledges and abhors the fact that there are many genuine cases of child abuse that may require the application of the criminal law. However, what is happening is that a number of people, usually during psychotherapy or counselling, are recovering ‘memories’ of having been sexually abused in childhood, even though those accused – usually, but not always, their parents – deny such abuse and there is no corroborating evidence.” …

In 1992, after an article in the American press drew a huge response, a group of accused parents in America attended a meeting with professionals from the University of Pennsylvania and Johns Hopkins University and the False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF) was formed. The appointment of a scientific advisory board led to a critical scrutiny of the social movement in which these therapeutic theories and practices were emerging. The rationale being offered by the therapists and their designated forms of treatment began to be challenged.

In Britain, the turning point was 1990 when the British edition of The Courage to Heal appeared and, following the American experience, a belief arose that ‘repressed memories‘ of sexual abuse were commonplace. After the first FMSF conference in Philadelphia in the spring of 1993, accused parents who attended from the UK met and formed an organisation which was to become the British False Memory Society.”

The British False Memory Society offers a newsletter and many links.

British False Memory Society

Treatment Facility, Castlewood: Harm Continues to Women Patients?

update: 11-17-14. My error, this is about Castlewood, not Mercy Ministries. My apologies and thanks to a reader who brought this to my attention.
update: 11-09-14. A fourth medical malpractice suit has been filed against Castlewood.
Lincoln, California, USA
According to the Lincoln News Messenger, Mercy Ministries, an international nonprofit organization that claims to help “females with life-threatening situations” namely anorexia nervosa a life-threatening eating disorder, has reopened its doors to patients.
Mercy Ministries, formerly of Australia, paid $120,000 for misrepresenting itself to women clients yet was permitted to open facilities in the United States after closing it’s treatment facility in Australia. Currently, it has treatment facilities in Lincoln, California; Monroe, Louisiana; Nashville, Tennessee.; St. Louis, Missouri, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom.

Although some of Mercy Ministries former patients claim the Lord showed them healing, there is a growing number of families telling horror stories of treatment using out-dated and debunked repressed-memory-therapy (RMT) which gained popularity in the 1980s. RMT treatment focuses on remembering alleged childhood sexual abuse that has shown to produce tainted, if not purely made-up, recall fraught with inaccuracies.

Mercy Ministries is repeating a period of psycho-social history and pop psychology in the United States that humiliated the entire profession and left it on its knees. Yet learning from their mistakes did not happen because fathers are once again being accused of sexually abusing their daughters only after their adult-children were influenced at various Mercy Ministries treatment centers to remember. Memories of horrific sexual are meant to heal their serious medical condition.

The Lincoln News Messenger claims that “Someone with an eating disorder might die without the appropriate medical treatment.” Furthermore it’s editor, Carol Feineman, says that while the United States Joint Commission on Health Care Accreditation JCHCA, acknowledges Mercy Ministries, it did not accredit them as a provider of mental health services. The JCHCA oversees hospitals within the United States and it is a serious infraction for Mercy Ministries to operate without their accreditation – not that they are not permitted to do so, but full-disclosure needs to occur with all and any clients that come to them for treatment.

Evidence is growing and indicating that Mercy Ministries may be treating women with debilitating eating disorders without proper authority, supervision, or medical and psychological health-care providers.
A Bible-based counseling and treatment center, Mercy Ministries is permitted under United States, Canadian, New Zealand, and United Kingdom law to open it’s doors to ill women who may or may not know it is not a proper medical facility. Is God’s love and guidance enough to help women overcome anorexia in lieu of medical treatment? Patients deserve and warrant proper nutritional, therapeutic or medical oversight of their medical and psychological conditions. Otherwise, they may just as well go to church and save themselves the money.
What do we does a society concerned with proper mental-health care going to do? How about sending this article to your friends and family? Tweeting, talking, and educating others about how to obtain proper medical care is a good start.
To read more mercyministries.org

Therapeutic Hazards of Treating Child Alters as Real Children in Dissociative Identity Disorder by Shusta-Hochberg, S.R.

Shusta-Hochberg’s article below supports the existence of child personalities  – and supports dissociative identity disorder, yet she does not think that exploring child alters is a productive method of treating patients.

~~~~~~~~~~

Therapeutic Hazards of Treating Child Alters as Real Children in Dissociative Identity Disorder
Shielagh R. Shusta-Hochberg, PhD

ABSTRACT. “Dissociative identity disorder (DID), with its typical etiology of extreme, repetitive childhood trauma, usually includes manifestations of childlike ego-states, among others. For many patients, these
ego-states, originating with the initial traumatic insults to the psyche in childhood, have been called forth again and again as new situations evoke the earlier trauma. When clinicians, family and friends react to
them with warmth, nurturing, and empathy, this may exacerbate the illusion that such ego-states are indeed actual children. This can result in a patient becoming increasingly resistant to working through the issues and experiences by which these ego-states have become fixed, with the risk of therapy reaching an impasse. Attitudes, interventions, and approaches to move past such impasses are addressed.”

Shielagh R. Shusta-Hochberg is a clinical psychologist in private practice in New York City, NY.

This paper was originally presented as “Fixed Illusions: Treating the Reification of Child Alters in Dissociative Identity Disorder,” at the 18th Annual Conference of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation, November 2002, Baltimore, MD. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, Vol. 5(1) 2004.

Retrieved 3/30/11. Available as a PDF.

ABSTRACT. “Dissociative identity disorder (DID), with its typical etiology of extreme, repetitive childhood trauma, usually includes manifestations of childlike ego-states, among others. For many patients, these
ego-states, originating with the initial traumatic insults to the psyche in childhood, have been called forth again and again as new situations evoke the earlier trauma. When clinicians, family and friends react to
them with warmth, nurturing, and empathy, this may exacerbate the illusion that such ego-states are indeed actual children. This can result in a patient becoming increasingly resistant to working through the issues and experiences by which these ego-states have become fixed, with the risk of therapy reaching an impasse. Attitudes, interventions, and approaches to move past such impasses are addressed.”

Shielagh R. Shusta-Hochberg is a clinical psychologist in private practice in New York City, NY.

This paper was originally presented as “Fixed Illusions: Treating the Reification of Child Alters in Dissociative Identity Disorder,” at the 18th Annual Conference of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation, November 2002, Baltimore, MD. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, Vol. 5(1) 2004.

Retrieved 3/30/11. Available as a PDF.

Emerging Science Shows Evidence that Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is also a Learning Disorder

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), initially called Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), has little credible science showing the disorder actually exists beyond individuals (and their therapists) believing in it.

People who allege they suffer from multiple personalities, or alter selves, use scant neuroimaging studies to prove the psychiatric condition is real. They claim different personalities can be seen in the brain when the suffer changes to different personality states. Studies debunking that conclusion show that intentionally changing ones thoughts can also change brain images are ignored in favor of the multiple personality model.

Although neuroimaging tests repeatedly debunk the Dissociative Identity Disorder model, the DID community is not swayed to question results of studies supporting it. It’s unfortunate when therapists and their clients ignore scientific evidence in favor of belief systems – but they have a right to toss out science if they so choose.

The study below shows new evidence that Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is both an anxiety disorder and a learning disorder.

I offer this study because professionals diagnosing Dissociative Identity Disorder use trauma as evidence that an abusive past likely occurred whether or not the trauma is actually known to the sufferer or believed to be buried deep in the psyche and, therefore, unknown.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is often used attached to the DID diagnosis. If indeed, patients are incapacitated not only with anxiety from childhood sexual trauma but also a learning disability, how does that knowledge impact theories of multiple personalities and Dissociative Identity Disorder?

Dissociative Identity Disorder hinges in part on the belief that severe impairment in adulthood is linked to a physically and/or mentally abusive childhood. Will emerging research indicating that learning disabilities also occur in patients suffering from PTSD add to the disability seen in DID patients? I contend it will.

If science indicates Post Traumatic Stress Disorder sufferers are also learning disabled, the psychiatric disability net that snares individuals into the multiple personality diagnosis widens and will rein in more unsuspecting patients.

Attaching learning disabilities to the Dissociative Identity Disorder diagnosis will enable clinicians to bill insurance companies for compensation using PTSD. I suspect that few clinicians report DID as the primary diagnostic disorder on insurance claim forms – instead, PTSD, anxiety, depression, Bipolar DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and other psychiatric categories are used because insurance companies are not allowing multiple personalities or DID to be compensated as they did in the 1980s before the disorder was debunked and shown to have caused grave harm to some patients.

I suspect the diagnosis of Learning Disorders via PTSD will increase in the near future as therapists attach it to Dissociative Disorders to gain credibility and monetary compensation for services rendered.

Regions of the brain affected by PTSD and stress.

Regions of the brain affected by PTSD and stress. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder show a selective deficit in generalization of associative learning.

Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kéri, Szabolcs; Myers, Catherine E.; Lencovsky, Zvi; Sharvit-Benbaji, Hadas; Orr, Scott P.; Gilbertson, Mark W.; Servatius, Richard J.; Tsao, Jack W.; Gluck, Mark A.
Neuropsychology, Vol 26(6), Nov 2012, 758-767. doi: 10.1037/a0029361

Abstract

Objective: Drawing on two different populations, Israeli police and Hungarian civilians, the present study assessed the ability of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to generalize previous learning to novel situations.

Past neuroimaging studies have demonstrated diminished medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation and/or reduced hippocampal volume in individuals with PTSD. Our earlier computational models of cortico-hippocampal function and subsequent experimental tests of these models in MTL-impaired clinical populations argue that even mild hippocampal dysfunction may result in subtle impairments in generalization.

Therefore, we predicted that individuals with PTSD would show impaired generalization. Method: We compared the performance of five groups from two countries, including 19 Israeli police with PTSD and 22 trauma-exposed police without PTSD, and 22 Hungarian civilians with PTSD, 25 trauma-exposed civilians without PTSD, and 25 individuals without PTSD unexposed to the same trauma. Participants were tested on a two-phase learning paradigm, the Acquired Equivalence Task, which measures the ability to generalize past learning to novel situations.

Results: We found that both PTSD and non-PTSD participants were capable of learning the initial stimulus-outcome associations, F(4, 108) = 1.79, p = .14. However, as predicted, only individuals with PTSD showed a selective deficit in generalization of this learning to novel situations (F(4, 108) = 8.35, p < .001, Partial η2 = 0.26). Conclusions: Individuals with PTSD show a selective impairment in generalization of past learning similar to other clinical populations with MTL/hippocampal dysfunction.

This is consistent with an emerging view of PTSD as being not only an anxiety disorder but also a learning disorder.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Chris Costner Sizemore: AKA The Three Faces of Eve (1927- )

Update 01-11-14. To date, I know of one high profile case of multiple personalities or Dissociative Identity Disorder that did not claim childhood sexual abuse as it antecedent or cause. That case is reported by Hershel Walker, former American football icon, who claims his multiple personalities were caused by childhood bullying.

If there are people out there who claim to have developed multiple personalities by causes other than childhood child abuse, I’d be interested to hear from you.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Christine (Chris) Costner Sizemore

born 1927 -

Most Noted for:

Diagnosed in the 1950s, she is considered by some to be the first documented case of multiple personality disorder in the 20th century. Chris Sizemore is known by the pseudonym, Eve.

Sizemore had eight psychiatrists during her lengthily treatment that spanned over two decades. Corbett Thigpen and colleague, Hervey Cleckley, M.D., published a book that was a historical case study based on her life titled: “The Three Faces of Eve” which gained best-seller status as did the movie by the same title.

During the later part of her illness and recovery from multiple personality disorder, Chris Sizemore was treated for four years by Dr. Tony Tsitos in Virginia.

Early childhood traumas:

Chris Sizemore, in a YouTube documentary “Hard Talk,” a BBC Interview, said that at the age of two, she experienced three consecutive traumas.

  1. her mother cut her arm badly
  2. she saw a drowned man being recovered from a ditch, heard the word “death,” and began to believe that anyone who was sick or hurt was “dying.”
  3. she witnessed a man cut in half at a lumber yard.

Chris Sizemore repeatedly states that it was with the help of her psychiatrists, devoted family, and her belief in God that saw her through her illness and led to her recovery.

Publications:

1958.  The Final Face of Eve

1977. I’m Eve

1989. A Mind of My Own

Sources:

Georgia Encyclopedia

Sizemore, Chris Costner, 1989. A Mind of My Own.

Wikipedia: “Chris Costner Sizemore”

YouTube: “Multiple Personality Disorder on Hard Talk BBC Interviews – Chris Costner Sizemore, Part I”rumiscience”  watch?v=CTvr2fDBjmg Retrieved 3/14/11.

Debunking Byington: Book Review of Twenty-Two Faces – a Story of Multiple Personalities

This is an ongoing book review. As time allows, I will add to the text.

You are welcome to make comments on this publication. I ask is that you be respectful to the author and others who voice opinions.

Thank you in advance for your patience in reviewing this highly controversial book and for following guidelines set forth. This book includes acts of murder, rape, and other felonies that is why I ask that comments address the writing – not people making comments.

I decided to write what will be an exhaustive analysis and critique of 22 Faces because of the positive impact it is having on patients diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder, commonly known as multiple personalities and because of arguments and opinions against the contents of this book found on the Amazon book review section and the forum of the Dr. Phil Show.

In my opinion, there is a resurgence of the discovery of multiple personalities among American women and the subsequent psychiatric diagnosis of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), therefore, it is extremely important to comb through this book to illustrate the inconsistencies in the narrative and the implausibility of the events the author declares occurred.

Supporting women abused as children is what society should do …. supporting a work of fiction touted as nonfiction is an act society needs to scrutinize particularly when crimes and childhood malfeasance are alleged.

This book is self-published and, therefore, was probably not scrutinized by a legal department with the vigor a conventional-publishing house would conduct prior to publication, therefore, statements made by the author require the reader to research whether or not the text is accurate.

Sexual abuse is horrid and dealing with the aftermath is difficult. Acts of ritual abuse undoubtedly occur. Satanists exist as a religion but I do not believe Byington’s depiction of this group are accurate.

Caveat: I am a former believer in multiple personalities and Dissociative Identity Disorder. I was entrenched in this lifestyle and psychotherapy for over 6 years and I have an excellent grasp of the inner workings of the events portrayed and alleged in this book.

Here we go…

~~~~~~~~~~

Judy Byington (Mrs.Weindorf) describes Twenty-Two Faces as a biography of Jenny Hill although the author also states that Jenny wrote the book. First question: is this an autobiography or a biography?

Byington states that Jenny Hill endured childhood sexual abuse, ritual abuse, satanic ritual abuse, kidnapping, parental abuse & neglect, sibling abuse, domestic abuse, Nazi mind control, divine intervention by God, psychiatric hospitalization, multiple personalities, and Dissociative Identity Disorder, to name a few. This book was published by Tate Publishing (May 15, 2012).

The author, Judy Byington, appeared on the Dr. Phil show on January 11, 2013 as did Jenny Hill and her son, Robert. (Note: Robert stated that Byington did not depict his family history accurately)

Retrieved 01-23-13.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 1. About the Author from her media kit @ www.22faces.com

Twenty Two Faces, A Division of Trauma Research Center, Inc.

Trauma Research Center CEO is Judy Byington, MSW, LCSW, retired. Author, Twenty-Two Faces,  and panel members are Linda Quinton-Burr, Ph.d, J.D. ; Susan Peterson, L.P.C. Therapist, Neurofeedback Specialist and Practitioner and Sharon Reese, mother to five children and 49 alter personalities and Author, Healing Broken Wings.

There is no such designation as LCSW – Licensed Clinical Social Worker, retired. One is either licensed or not licensed. One does not “retire” from this profession and retain a license to practice. The designation of “retired” is meaningless, misleading, and a professional designation created by the author.

2. Let’s look at the endorsement from the back cover:

Robert Kroon (1924 – June 24, 2007). According to Wikipedia (01-23-13) Kroon… “was a prominent Dutch journalist who reported on conflicts and other stories as a foreign correspondent from Africa, Asia and Europe for nearly 60 years.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Kroon

.Although Mr. Kroon died four (4) years before the publication of this work, the author secured an endorsement from him.

This blogger finds it highly unlikely that a journalist of Kroon’s stature would endorse a book without reading the final draft and highly unlikely to do so after death.

update: 03-29-13. There will be no further review of Judy Byington’s book. There is little credible evidence that any of the event occurred. I, and many others, critiqued this Amazon book reviews and asked the author specific questions – each and every time, the author did not address the questions, rather she attacked the questioner.

~~~~~~~~~~ Will not be back later. ~~~~~~~~~~

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Is Change in Handwriting Evidence of Multiple Personalities & Dissociative Identity Disorder?

English: Cournut_handwriting_and_signature_25_...

Image via Wikipedia

I updated this article because Dr. Yank, whose research was sited, stated that I misunderstood her research study from 1991.

I am grateful that she came here and gave me this opportunity.

Dr. Yank submitted the following (an excerpt):

I happened to stumble upon this website and noticed a comment about my research. The research was rigorously performed and evaluated, but it seems that the blogger may not have understood the intent of the study.

I am a handwriting researcher. My goal in this study was to determine whether individuals could write different styles so consistently over time that it would make it difficult to ascertain authorship on documents. This question is relevant in the case of questioned signatures and writings (wills, forgeries, written statements, and others). That goal was clearly stated in the article.

I do not have an opinion on whether or not DID exists. My research showed that in some rare cases, alleged alters wrote in unique and consistent patterns over the time that samples were gathered (several months). These situations were very rare and were verified by people who knew the writers (I did not).

Original article:

Is a change in handwriting proof that an individual possesses multiple personalities or has dissociative identity disorder as many expert believe?

Different and/or changing handwriting styles has been used as evidence of the existence of multiple personalities for decades. It is argued that an individual, either believing in or having a diagnosis of MPD/DID, can have alter personalities who write and express themselves differently on paper. It is furthermore argued that each personality can be identified by their handwriting.

I won’t argue the point that any given alter personality can be identified by their handwriting as Jane Redfield Yank, M.S.S.W. did in “Handwriting Variation in Individuals with Multiple Personality Disorder, 1991. It’s easy enough to create a character with all types of personality traits that can be reenacted and recreated over time. It occurs in films, theater, novels, and television every day. It would be interesting, however, to have a handwriting expert analyze writing samples of someone who believes they have multiple personalities. I know of no such study, but my guess is that there would be consistent inconsistency through all personalities.

I was researching the life and work of  Dr. Wallace Nutting, a minister who was also a photographer and interested in preserving antiquities. Nutting (1861-1941) became interested in photography after ill health forced him to retire from ministry. His photographs were sometimes hand-colored and often signed by the colorist, rather than Nutting himself. As a result, there are many authorized signatures on file at the Wallace Nutting Library.

Here are quotes from the Library website that address the multiple personality/handwriting theory:

“Wallace Nuttings career spanned several decades so it would reasonably be expected that his signature style would change to some degree.” Of course, my handwriting is not the same as it was when in high school is yours?

“During the several decades that the Nutting Studio was in operation, several head colorist were authorized to sign Nutting’s name to his work. For this reason the signature style will vary depending on when and in what studio the picture was made.”

Wallace Nutting Library Authorized Signatures

The library shows illustrations of Nutting’s signatures over the decades of his life. They are most interesting as they changed considerably as the culture changed, his health failed, time constraints on his art grew, colorists entered his work, and daily life moved on.

While I was in treatment, and diagnosed with multiple personalities, my former doctor used my handwriting changes as evidence that I had alters inside me that wanted to have a voice. I was initially shocked. His observations and analysis were enlightening because they quelled my doubts, and his observations were terribly frightening – leaving me with increased feelings of unreality, disconnectedness, and loss of control. Upon further thought, however, I found the statement odd for several reasons.

First, I was a prolific journalist in the early 1980s before I met him and wrote for many hours daily  – easily filling a blank book in a few weeks with tiny letters and tight use of space. When I told the doctor, he chose to ignore me.

I also knew that at times I got tired and my hand hurt – so of course my handwriting changed. When I told the doctor, he chose to ignore me.

When I was mad, or in a hurry, my letters were larger, as were the loops. The script in general was more intense, bold, and forceful. When I told the doctor, he chose to ignore me.

I savored the joy of the physical act of writing, the texture and smell of different types of paper, the feel of fountain pens or plastic ones off an assembly line, and enjoyed watching how the ink flowed as I wrote. I liked the colors, the feel of a pen in my hand and how the right combination of pen and paper could keep me writing for hours. And how the wrong texture of paper and pen could keep my journal entries short. I wrote at my desk, on my lap, while on a bus, and any other place whether or not I was stationary – so of course my handwriting changed. When I told the doctor, he chose to ignore me.

I gave up trying to tell him how writers love the instruments of their craft and that there was an another explanation to the changes in my handwriting. I let the matter go and choose to ignore him – sometimes.

Back to Wallace Nutting. His plethora of signatures could easily have been used as evidence of severe childhood sexual abuse and, therefore, he could have been diagnosed with multiple personalities had he survived and lived in America during the explosion of the MPD diagnosis in the 1980s and 1990s.

I know some will say Nutting was an undiagnosed multiple. I can’t change that. Those who put weight on changing handwriting using it as proof or evidence that multiple personalities and dissociative identity disorder exist might take a moment and factor into the equation that different handwriting exists just because we are human and change all the time.

Yank, J.R. Dissociation_Vol._4_No._1_p._002-012_Handwriting_variations_in_individuals_with_MPD

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Satanic Ritual Abuse Calendar of Events for Dissociative Identity Disorder Patients

Spoiler Alert! The information below is ridiculous and has no business in a psychotherapy room where women are allegedly being treated for multiple personalities.

During my treatment to recall childhood sexual abuse that eventually proved to have never happened, I was coerced into believing I was raised in a satanic cult. My former doctor gave me a satanic calendar similar to the one below but it was more detailed and had many more events scheduled throughout the year. This one lists dates of interest by month and day and states the reason for the celebration or “fear” inducing events that are meant to occur.

This is not only questionable information, but a psychiatrist has no business giving this to a vulnerable patient – or any patient for that matter, IMO.

After receiving a satanic calendar, I became more frantic – especially before the dates listed. The document was the doctor’s way of proving that satanic ritual abuse (SRA) is real and that he would protect me from the evil villains – which by the way, never surfaced. Nonetheless, he admitted me to the hospital and kept me sequestered until the holiday passed.

~ From the 1st National Con­fer­ence on Cult & Rit­ual Abuse Boston, MA, June 1991 ~

Date Cel­e­bra­tion Usage Age
Jan 7 St. Winebald Ani­mal or human (dismemberment) 15–33
M if human
Jan 17 *Satanic Revel Oral, anal, vagi­nal activity 7–17 F
Feb 2 *Satanic Revel Oral, anal, vagi­nal activity 7–17 F
Feb 25 St. Walpur­gis Day Com­mu­nion w/animal blood & dismemberment Ani­mal
Mar 1 St. Enoch Drink­ing of blood for strength & bondage to demons Any age
Mar 20 **Feast Day
(Spring Equinox)
Oral, anal, vaginal Any age M or F
April 21–26 Prepa­ra­tion for sacrifice
Apr 26 –May 1 *Grand Cli­max Cor­pus de Baahl Ages 1–25 F
June 1 **Feast Day
(Sum­mer Soltice)
Oral, anal, vaginal Any age M or F
July 1 Demon Rev­els Druids sex­ual asso­ci­a­tion w/demons Any age F
Aug 1 *Satanic Rev­els Oral, anal, vaginal 7–17 F
Sept 7 Mar­riage to Beast Satan Sac­ri­fices, Dismemberment Infant-21 F
Sept 20 Mid­night Host Dis­mem­ber­ment bonds placed Infant-21 F
Sept 22 **Feast Day
(Fall Equinox)
Oral, anal, vaginal Any age, M or F, Ani­mal or Human
Oct 29 –Nov 1 *All Hal­lows Eve
(Halloween)
Sex­ual cli­max, asso­ci­a­tion w/demons Any age M or F
Nov 4 Satanic Rev­els Oral, anal, vaginal 7–17 F
Dec 22 **Feast Day
(Win­ter Solstice)
Oral, anal, vaginal Any age, M or F, Ani­mal or Human
Dec 24 Demon Revel High Grand Climax Any age M or F

*Sig­ni­fies most impor­tant hol­i­days
**Sig­ni­fies hol­i­days of lesser sig­nif­i­cance
Rit­u­als may take place the evenings before the hol­i­day
Birth­days cho­sen as date to begin indoc­tri­na­tion into the cult

Open letter to Dr. Phil: “a public mental health menace” (process.org)

updated 10-22-14

The Illusive Satanists: What Many in the Multiple Personality Community Believe about Satanic Ritual Abuse

Mr. Satan Head

Mr. Satan Head (Photo credit: Scott Beale)

Last year, at Halloween, I designed a costume and attended Kate’s annual
party. She decorated her property, starting at the curb, with blinking orange
lights, cob webs, and hidden boxes that made unpredictable sounds when I
walked by. The house was dark with intrigue. I wondered what scary characters
awaited my arrival.

After dark, her neighborhood was full of adults and children in costume. We
pretended to be witches or walking trees or scarecrows. We gave ourselves
permission to create, fantasize, and play. For one night, we became someone,
or something, other than ourselves. Mystery and intrigue are what make Kate’s
Halloween parties enticing.

Oddly, treatment for Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), now known as Dissociative
Identity Disorder (DID), has similar enticing qualities. For example, once
labeled a “multiple,” I was often viewed as exotic and mysterious. My thought
patterns and subsequent behaviors were intriguing and bewildering to therapists.
Treatment twisted my thinking. I became a devoted student of repressed memory
therapy
, believing I was raised in a Satanic cult. Therapy helped me “remember”
cult meetings with gory smoldering cauldrons of blood, dismembered animals,
the screech of tormented women, and the foul smell of burning flesh. The
Halloween season, once a time of fun and theatrics, became an annual nightmare
referred to as “The Satanic High Holidays.” Therapy transformed the play of yesteryear into terror.
The Halloween season became life-threatening. My doctor instructed me to
beware of encoded messages sent by Satanists, either by mail or by telephone,
programming me to suicide. He said I needed protection from them because I was
exposing their cult secrets. I agreed to be hospitalized, drugged and
quarantined.

My doctor’s thinking was not logical. In fact, it was pure nonsense. The
tricks, illusions, and deceits of treatment lured me in.

What made it impossible to distinguish fact from fancy? Prior to therapy, I
knew nothing about Satanism. While hospitalized, however, I was inundated with
information about Satanic cults from my doctor, therapists, nurses, other
patients, self- proclaimed “professionals” who survived Satanic abuse, and books.
Initially, I was a willing participant in the exchange of information. Later,
I was a captive audience and my caretakers’ professional opinions quickly
flipped my belief system upside-down.

I often proclaimed that my uncovered “memories” were fabrications, but I was
ignored. New “memories” weren’t as real as those I’d never forgotten; they
were dream-like and fuzzy. The idolatrous manner in which I related to my
doctor blinded me to the truth regarding my history. I was tricked into
believing there was Satanic abuse when, in fact, there wasn’t.

The illusive Satanists never surfaced at Halloween. Just the same, my feelings
of terror were real. Therapy created panic, insomnia, anorexia, abuse of
prescription drugs, gastrointestinal distress and fatigue. My behavior was
irrational. I hid under the bed, shrouded myself in blankets, and hugged
Leroy, my teddy bear.

Unknowingly, I was caught in the web of my doctor’s delusions. Halloween is
payday for some therapists and hospitals because clients are often in a
heightened emotional state. The fabricated Halloween horrors create chaos;
they breed confusion and anxiety. Clients seek comfort and often require extra
with therapists while needing more prescription drugs,additional phone contact,                                               and even hospitalization.

I challenge therapists who treat clients for Satanic abuse to follow their own treatment regime this year. By mid-October, check into a hospital, stay behind locked doors, speak to no one, ingest mass quantities of narcotics, and starve yourselves — then stay awake while watching horror movies night and day.

Since leaving treatment I learned the illusive Satanists, created in therapy, don’t exist. Halloween has returned to what it’s always been — a day of fun, fantasy, and theater. I’m looking forward to Kate’s party.

~~~~~~~~~~

Originally published in the False Memory Syndrome Foundation Newsletter,
October, 1999

Apologies for the formatting. The original article does not translate well.

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1904: Multiple Personality & Human Individuality, by Sidis & Goodhart

Multiple Personality:

An Experimental Investigation Into the Nature of Human Individuality

ISBN: 978-1-59147-626-9   Publication Date: 1904
APA Print-on-Demand books are currently unavailable for purchase. We apologize for the inconvenience.

This book looks at multiple personality through the lens of individuality. Each part deals with a specific aspect of multiple personality: personality, double personality, and finally, consciousness and multiple personality. The work of Parts I and III covers a period of eight years. Out of the material accumulated by Dr. Sidis and his collaborators, some experiments and observations of functional psychopathic cases have been utilized in the last part of this volume. The authors note that the case of double personality described in Part II is of great interest and is specially recommended to the reader’s attention. This case was investigated in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals.

Here is a link to the table of contents http://www.sidis.net/mpcontents.htm

Boris Sidis

Boris Sidis (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

~~~~~

Excerpt from wikipedia

Boris Sidis, Ph.D., M.D. October 12, 1867 – October 24, 1923) was a Ukrainian psychologist, physician, psychiatrist, and philosopher of education. Sidis founded the New York State Psychopathic Institute and the Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Boris Sidis eventually opposed mainstream psychology and Sigmund Freud, and thereby died ostracized.

From Google Books:

S. P. GOODHART, PH.B., M.D. Assistant Professor of Neurology, Columbia University Neurologist to the Montefiore Hospital NEW YORK CITY, USA

~~~~~~

I am finding old, old articles that refer to multiple personalities as “functional psychosis”. Unfortunately, this book is out of print and no longer a print-on-demand. Maybe one of you will get lucky and find it. JB

Updated: 09-15-14.

Helen: Woman with 7 Personalities, Part 2 (YouTube)

Running Time: 15:01

This video includes interviews with:

Dr. Larry Culliford, psychiatrist, Royal College of Psychiatrists

Dr. Joan Coleman, psychiatrist who works with ritually & satanically abused people.

Overview:

  • Helen and her friend visit a former teacher
  • It is reveled that Helen is a recovering alcoholic
  • Overt eye blinking to indicate personality change & display of child personalities and baby talk
  • Reveled that Helen cannot hold a job, is living in a counseling flat (public housing) and survives on benefits
  • Shows piles of pills & bottles of medicines that Helen consumes including: sleeping pills, anti-psychotics, antidepressants, central nervous system depressant – Valium, and many over the counter products to quell the side-effects of these pharmaceutical drugs
  • Minute 5:20 Helen states she overdosed on pills over 100 times

Her friend continues the quest to find out what is causing Helen so much pain.

  • Minute 9:20 Helen claims she was “severely abused as a child”
  •           10: 39 Dr. Larry Culliford interview

The quest to find who is responsible for Helen’s condition

  • Minute 13:30 ritual and satanic ritual abuse introduced
  •             13:51 Dr. Joan Coleman interview

Retrieved  10/07/11. YouTube: Woman with 7 personalities Part 2

Inpatient Suicide

by the Law Offices of Skip Simpson

The loss of a loved one is devastating

An inpatient suicide is a shock to friends and family. You may have spent time choosing the right facility. You may have placed your loved one into a psychiatric or rehabilitation center, believing he or she would receive increased attention from healthcare providers. Unfortunately, when healthcare providers fail meet the standard of care, or to follow procedures or lack adequate training, inpatient suicides can occur. A suicide might occur because a staff member failed to conduct a regular check of the patient’s well-being. It is not the standard of care to put a suicidal patient on an every 15 minute observation level.

It is estimated 1,500 patients die each year by suicide in our hospitals and many thousands more make non-fatal attempts. Among other factors, investigations have shown these injuries and deaths can be attributed to inadequate staff training in a) how to detect, assess, and communicate suicide risk, and b) how to properly monitor known at-risk patients in the emergency room or hospital.

Dangerous hospital practices persist

Even when clinicians know patients are at elevated risk for suicidal behaviors, antiquated, untested, and dangerous hospital practices persist; e.g., the so-called every 15 minute monitoring level – a routine “intervention” that allows patients 14 minutes and 59 seconds to kill themselves using obvious anchor points, ligatures and sharp instruments.

There is no standard of care that allows healthcare professionals to needlessly endanger patients known to be at risk for suicidal behaviors. Published studies point to improved practice models, use of environmental safety and procedural checklists, and evidence-based training in how to detect, assess, monitor and manage suicidal patients – training that is now accessible, available, affordable, and which establishes the standard of care.

When a patient is at increased risk for suicidal behavior

Suicidality is the most common reason for inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. When a patient is admitted to the hospital because of thoughts of suicide, the clinician and hospital is on notice that the patient is at an increased risk for suicidal behavior. When hospital staff members are aware of a patient’s suicidal tendencies, the hospital assumes the duty to take reasonable steps to prevent the patient from inflicting harm.

Filing a claim can be difficult following a traumatic event. At the Law Offices of Skip Simpson, we provide compassionate representation for family members who have lost loved ones. You and your family have placed a large amount of trust in the medical professionals, from doctors to orderlies. They have a duty to provide their patients with correct diagnoses and to take appropriate action based on the symptoms.

How an inpatient suicide can happen

An inpatient suicide usually occurs in a psychiatric hospital, but can occur in a general hospital. They may have been placed at the facility involuntarily (a court has made a determination that they’re imminently suicidal). They may have checked in to a facility voluntarily.

An inpatient suicide may occur under any of the following circumstances:

  • Inadequate suicide assessment
  • Improper suicide watch or negligent suicide watch
  • An unsafe environment of care
  • Failure to remove environmental dangers
  • Inadequate policies and procedures regarding dangerous contraband
  • Failure to remove shoe laces or belt from patient

In handling an inpatient suicide case, we typically investigate hospital records and patient charts. Our investigation consists of interviews with witnesses and reviews of logs.

Contact our law firm

For a free and confidential consultation, contact a compassionate attorney who cares about people and demands justice. Contact the Law Offices of Skip Simpson. See what we can do for you. Call 214-618-8222 or reach a personal injury lawyer by completing our online contact form.

Retrieved 06/21/12. Reprint by permission.

45 Years of Psychotherapy Fails to Heal Psychiatrist with Multiple Personalities

Treatment for  multiple personalities is known to be long and arduous but I doubt few, if any, psychotherapists disclose the probable cost and duration of the treatment they sell. It is common for patients to be in treatment for decades and sometimes a lifetime.

Dissociative Identity Disorder, the formal diagnosis for those deemed to have multiple personalities, is a disorder that finds the patient’s personal life crumbling whereby making it difficult to take care of daily activities, jobs, and children.

How this psychiatrist managed to treat others while having such a debilitating condition himself makes me skeptical. Does this doctor really have typical symptoms of multiple personalities?  Did he offer psychotherapy that is up to the standard of care of other psychiatrists?

 

Meet Dr Jekyll

29 August, 2014 Amanda Davey

Published by: 6 Minutes of interesting stuff for doctors today

A South Australian psychiatrist practised for decades while suffering from dissociative identity disorder (DID), according to a case report in Australian Psychiatry (see link below).
The recently retired Dr S* underwent over 45 years of psychotherapy for the disorder and continues to see a private psychiatrist weekly.

Dr S says he regularly treated DID patients in his private practice while dealing with his own psychiatric illness.

 

Full story here

Related links:

Journal of Australian Psychiatry

 

 

 

 

 

Full Story here

On the incidence of multiple personality disorder: A brief communication (by the early therapists for “Eve”) 1984

According to two of the psychiatrists who treated Chris Sizemore (The Three Faces of Eve), they found only one (1) case that fit the diagnosis of multiple personality disorder until this article was published in 1984.

Given this analysis of the medical literature it seems there was a huge explosion of misdiagnosed patients after 1984. Why is this information tucked in old medical journals? Because it would not serve the needs and wishes of some contemporary theorists and psychotherapists – and patients who desperately want to fit into what they perceive as a romantic and highly- intellectualized diagnostic category.

Chris Sizemore was an interesting clinical case study for her first two psychiatrists, Corbett H. Thigpen & Hervey M. Cleckley, but mundane in comparison to the multiple personalities displayed by Shirley Mason AKA Sybil, years later.

Sizemore, the earlier face of multiple personalities, claimed that successive tragedies she merely witnessed as a three-year-old caused her personality fragmentation. She did not claim to have been sexually abused during childhood.

Why then, do nearly 99% of people diagnosed with multiple personalities or dissociative identity disorder claim to have survived childhood sexual abuse? Where are the people like Chris Sizemore who have multiple personalities due to other reasons? Are other non-sexually abused cases of multiple personalities going unreported other that Hershel Walker, famed football player? Perhaps they simply vanished or didn’t exist in the first place.

If we look at Shirley Mason and the character of “Sybil” that grew from her therapist, Cornelia Wilbur’s, imagination and clinical observations, Chris Sizemore’s life played out in The Three Faces of Eve pales in comparison. In comparing these two cases, it must be remembered that both women behind the flamboyant theatrical characters had other therapists who treated them. Withholding this information to the pubic only serves to perpetuate the mystery and entertainment value behind these iconic folk legends. If it was widely known that these women had other doctors on their treatment teams who disagreed with the multiple personality diagnosis, and stated so, would it have made as much money at the box office? Note too, that the therapists of Chris Sizemore banked the money, not Chris.

Read the summary of the article below written by Chris Sizemore/Eve’s first two therapists who were responsible for the diagnosis of multiple personality disorder. And let’s not forget that it was they who led their patient to Hollywood and reaped the financial rewards – not their patient. Read their own words, not mine or anyone else’s. Find out for yourself and reach your own conclusions.

In hindsight, this is a profound warning to the psychiatry industry who chose to ignore warnings of impending disaster to their profession as the diagnosis of multiple personalities and Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) proliferated and continues to do so.

Photo credit unknown. If you are the owner, please contact me.

~~~~~~~~~~

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Volume 32, Issue 2, 1984

On the incidence of multiple personality disorder: A brief communication

Corbett H. Thigpen & Hervey M. Cleckley
pages 63-66

Available online: 31 Jan 2008

Abstract

Abstraet: Since reporting a case of multiple personality (Eve) over 25 years ago, we have seen many patients who were thought by others or themselves to have the disorder, but we have found only 1 case that fit the diagnosis. The other cases manifested either pseudo- or quasidissociative symptoms related to dissatisfaction with self-identity or hysterical acting out for secondary gain. One particular form of secondary gain, namely, avoiding responsibility for certain actions, was evident in a recent legal case where the person was diagnosed as having the disorder and successfully pled not guilty by reason of insanity. We urge that a diagnosis of multiple personality not be used in such a manner and recommend that therapists consider the hysterical basis of the symptoms, as well as the adaptive dynamics of personality before diagnosing someone as having the disorder. (type face by blogger) If such factors are considered, the incidence of the disorder will be found to be far less than the “epidemic” recently claimed.

Retrieved 7/24/11.

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Dr. Bob Newhart: How to extinguish multiple personalities

This is as simplistic as it gets.

YouTube

Inadvertent hypnosis during interrogation … by Richard Ofshe

Inadvertent hypnosis during interrogation: False confession due to dissociative state: Mis-identified multiple personality and the satanic cult hypothesis.

Ofshe, Richard J.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Vol 40(3), Jul 1992, 125-156. doi: 10.1080/00207149208409653

Abstract

Presents the case of a 43-yr-old man who, after induction of a dissociative state followed by suggestion during interrogation, developed pseudomemories of raping his daughters and of participation in a baby-murdering Satanic cult.

The pseudomemories coupled with influence from authority figures convinced him of his guilt for 6 mo. During this time, S, the witnesses, and all the evidence in the case were studied. No evidence supported an inference of guilt, and substantial evidence supported the conclusion that no crime had been committed.

An experiment demonstrated S’s extreme suggestibility. It was concluded that the cult did not exist and S’s confessions were coerced internalized false confessions. During the investigation, 2 psychologists diagnosed S as suffering from a dissociative disorder similar to multiple personality. Both psychologists were predisposed to find the involvement of satanic cult activity.

Related links:

Defending The Innocent: Interrogation and False Confession  http://www.nacdl.org/Champion.aspx?id=1089

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Ofshe

Mark Schwartz, accused of malpractice, removed from Castlewood clinic staff

I have been informed that The Examiner.com who published the article below received complaints about someone the author, Mr. Mesner, named in the article below. While the complaints are without merit and Mr. Mesner followed journalistic integrity, I have redacted the name of the person and the organization cited.

If you are outraged by the actions of The Examiner pulling Mr. Mesner’s article, contact David Horan @ dhoran@examiner.com

What continues to occur from people who do not like opinions expressed on this blog and others, is that bogus complaints are levied against us threatening legal action if we do not comply with their demand to take their name(s) off our blogs.

When people write articles and form organizations they do not have a right to threaten legal action when cited properly – yet that is what happened to Mr. Mesner and me.  Authors of blogs, websites, and publications are considered “public figures” and have no right to file complaints when journalists cite their work and quote their words properly – which Mr. Mesner and I do.

There is, of course, no copyright or other infringement nonetheless these complaints pour in. I have to admit the action works and they get what they want even though people like me and Mr. Mesner publish with journalistic integrity and abide by journalist ethics.

It’s You, readers, who suffer. Journalists cannot offer you complete information and you should be outraged.

These actions are pure highjacking of freedom of information. The individual Mr. Mesner named in the article below filed a bogus lawsuit against Mr. Mesner and choose not to show in court. The point only seems to have been to silence Mr. Mesner and cause him financial harm.

Although under duress I redact the article below, I choose to take the easy route even though it impinges on my freedom of speech and your freedom of information. I am working on many projects bigger and more important and tangling with people who file bogus complaints and who encourage silencing of information must take a back-seat so I can keep focused on my work.

Below is the article published by The Examiner.com with the name of said person and the organization they operate – redacted. This action is done under duress until such time as those making bogus complaints and filing bogus lawsuits can be stopped from doing so and held accountable for their deplorable behavior.

Seems those supporting the existence of multiple personalities and Dissociative Identity Disorder hate the truth and do not want the public to know what happens behind closed doors.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Guest re-blog     By:

May 25, 2013    www.Examiner.com

The bizarre nature of the lawsuits created a minor, short-lived sensation among the national press at the times of their filings. The first, dated November 21, 2011 — Lisa Nasseff vs. Castlewood Treatment Center, LLC. — alleged to gross malpractice suffered while undergoing “treatment” at the St. Louis eating disorders clinic. To quote directly from the suit:

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“defendant carelessly and negligently hypnotized plaintiff at a time when she was under the influence of various psychotropic medications and said hypnotic treatment directly caused or contributed to cause the creation, reinforcement, or increase in plaintiff’s mind, of false memories including the following:

a) Plaintiff suffered physical and sexual abuse;
b) Plaintiff suffered multiple rapes;
c) Plaintiff suffered satanic ritual abuse;
d) Plaintiff was caused to believe she was a member of a satanic cult and that she was involved in or perpetrated various criminal and horrific acts of abuse;
e) Plaintiff was caused to believe that she had multiple personalities at one time totaling twenty separate personalities.”

By November 09, 2012, four total lawsuits had been filed, all of a similar nature, all of which are still yet to go to trial. The allegations claim that among the false memories cultivated under the influence of Castlewood’s systematic narcosis “therapy” are disturbed, traumatizing delusions of ritual murder. No doubt, such “memories”, even when recognized as delusions, must exact a severe emotional toll, nor could the intentional cultivation of such delusions be considered anything but malpractice.

(The four lawsuits represent only some patients who now recognize their “memories” of abuse as false. Numerous families — some having started an online support network under the name of Castlewood Victims Unite — claim that they may have forever lost their daughters to false memories of Ritual Abuse that have caused them to withdraw from contact, and reason, entirely.)

But how could such delusions be cultivated in the course of treatment for eating disorders, and for what purpose? According to the allegations, it seems, the theory at Castlewood is (or was) that eating disorders signify outer manifestations of inner repressed traumas of abuse.

“Repressed”, of course, is to say that the patient does not consciously remember the traumatic event(s). Treatments based on these assumptions always seem to rely on bringing these presumed traumas out into conscious scrutiny. This, we are told, is the only way to neutralize them… the only way to end the outer symptoms these hidden traumas are believed to cause.

Is it credible to think that the co-founders of Castlewood, Mark Schwartz and his wife Lori Galperin — both internationally recognized experts in eating disorders, and both implicated in the suits — could have been reckless enough to lead vulnerable and medicated patients to cultivate absurd delusions of satanic cult abuse, or is something else going on?

In fact, wherever the idea of “repressed memories” and multiple personalities rears its ugly, debunked head, unhinged “memories” of imagined abuse are never far behind. Throughout the 80s and 90s, internationally recognized experts in trauma and dissociation (such as Richard Kluft and Colin Ross) promoted a deranged conspiracy theory of satanic cult abuse based upon accounts that had been “recovered” by their clients. Multiple investigations debunked the narrative of these accounts entirely, and it became quite clear what was really going on: an irresponsible and unscientific therapeutic practice was being employed to encourage vulnerable mental health consumers to confabulate memories of abuse — and then, in many cases, further encouraged them to insistently believe them. These confabulations, not-so-remarkably, had an enormously high probability of validating the therapist’s assumptions, regardless of how improbable those assumptions may have been.

In parallel to the satanic ritual abuse scare (now known to sociologists as the “Satanic Panic”) the exact same theories of memory retrieval brought us the mythology of alien abduction. Believing they had developed a check-list of probable symptoms of extraterrestrial contact that had subsequently been concealed from memory, “abductologists” used the same techniques employed by multiple personality specialists to draw forth elaborate narratives involving interplanetary visitors.

Interestingly, some professionals of abductology have found, in their probing explorations of their clients’ concealed “memories”, that the extraterrestrials are here to help us — they occasionally intervene in our affairs, but only on our behalf, and with unconditional benevolence and love. This contrasts heavily with narratives revealing a nefarious plot of oddly anal-centric human vivisection and exploitation. Why the discrepancy? I have personally sought out and interviewed a number of the top names in alien abduction research with this very question. In every instance, the answer has been the same: the other guys are doing the therapy wrong. They are interpreting “screen memories” improperly, or they are interpreting fear of the unknown as malice on the part of the extraterrestrials. Both sides assert that if only the other was to “dig deeper”, they would find the truth.

Incidentally, I attended a lecture, just last month, given by one Richard Schwartz, former member of Castlewood’s clinical staff, and creator of a therapy model, used at the Castlewood treatment center, called Internal Family Systems (IFS). IFS asserts that we all have multiple personalities, called “parts”, and by understanding and reconciling these parts, we may find inner peace. Some parts are destructive (suicidal, self-undermining, irrational, etc.) and it is the therapist’s job to find those parts and understand what distresses them individually.

During a Question & Answer segment of Dr. Schwartz’s presentation, I raised my hand:

Q: I worry about the distinction between getting people to recognize naturally occurring “parts” and being blamed [as a therapist] for causing people to contextualize themselves into parts to the point where you’re blamed for [creating] destructive parts. And I know there’s an eating disorders clinic that was using IFS and has lawsuits against it now. I was wondering if they could have done things differently [in their utilization of IFS therapy], or if that’s just a professional hazard?

Dick Schwartz: You know… that one’s a tough one, because what I’ve done — early in my career what I’ve done… The lawsuit’s around false memories — that whole movement’s come back some. Early in my career I had a client who went through all these cult memories. You know, I was really into it. Did some investigating, checked things out. And then, one session, we found a part that was generating all this to keep my interest because I had seen (some interest in her[?]) I’m very, very careful to never lead people toward any kind of… never presume what’s going to come out as they do their own witnessing. Even in ways — when something scary comes out — something like that — [I] say, well, we can’t really know whether this is true or not, but it is what the part needs to show so we’re going to go with it for now and later you can evaluate it, whether it’s true or not. So, it’s not just IFS, but any therapy that goes deep with people will come upon that phenomenon… and not everybody is careful in… those… realms…

Just as with alien abduction, one can always “dig deeper” in the context of IFS so as to re-narrate the entire tale. How do licensed professionals fall for this rubbish? The lecture I attended was delivered to a full-house of professional, credulous rubes in the mental health profession.

In 2009 I attended a “Ritual Abuse/Mind-Control conference” held annually in Connecticut by an organization known as XXXXXX. The conference is organized by a licensed Mental Health professional, XXXXXX, from XXXXXXXXX. A vendor booth at the conference was selling electromagnetic-beam blocking hats, and one of the speakers casually lectured us about mind-control and “demonic harmonics”, which “involves using musical tones and quantum physics to open up portals into the spiritual realms.” XXXXXX claims to have recovered memories that XXXXXX was a brainwashed assassin for the satanic cult conspiracy within the Illuminati-controlled CIA. Theories of repressed trauma are used to support the notion that if this type of lunacy can be “recalled”, so too must it all be true. (I wrote a report about this conference which XXXXXX has subsequently been attempting to litigate against on grounds of “defamation”, though, interestingly, none of the factual claims in the report are contested in the suit at all.)

The International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD) hosts professional conferences where the debunked diagnosis of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) (now referred to in the American Psychiatric Association’s [APA] Diagnostic & Statistical Manual [DSM] as Dissociative Identity Disorder) is discussed and elaborated upon. Their last conference found a regular speaker from the annual xxxxx conferences co-delivering a lecture on “Ritual Abuse”, a slightly euphemistic term for the conspiracy theory of satanic cult abuse.

The task force chair of the 4th edition of the DSM, Dr. Allen Frances, has recently admitted to the Wall Street Journal that MPD/DID is “complete bunk”, yet the diagnosis remains in the current 5th edition, rolled-out only last week, of the revised DSM. This refusal to acknowledge the harmful realities regarding some of their imaginary disorders surely played a role in the National Institute of Mental Health’s (NIMH) decision, announced early this month, to abandon the DSM altogether, along with a statement recognizing that “patients with mental disorders deserve better.”

Indeed they do. The APA must bear responsibility for enabling the quackery endorsed by the ISSTD, who must bear some responsibility for lending any credibility to the delusional assertions of XXXXXX

…And Richard Schwartz’s IFS must bear some responsibility for the allegations against Castlewood… and Castlewood must bear responsibility for Mark Schwartz and Lori Galperin.

New evidence suggests that Castlewood is trying to distance themselves from that responsibility as much as possible. Both Mark Schwartz and Lori Galperin were recently removed entirely from the Castlewood staff shortly after depositions were taken regarding the malpractice suits. Whether they were allowed to abruptly resign, or were outright fired is unclear at this time.

If the accusations against Schwartz and his wife prove true, let us hope they never practice again… But let us also understand, the problem is far bigger than the both of them, and it is a long way from being resolved.

More on Castlewood, by journalist Ed Cara, can be read here: http://www.dysgenics.com/author/ed/

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Related topics

  • Castlewood Victims Unite (Facebook)
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • eating disorder treatment
  • false memory
  • repression
  • repressed memories
  • parts therapy
  • IFS
  • Internal Family Systems
  • memory recall
  • false accusations of sexual abuse
  • Multiple Personality Disorder
  • multiple personalities
  • Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  • DSM-5
  • International Society for the Study of Trauma & Dissociation (ISST-D)
  • False Memory Syndrome Action Network (Facebook)

Halloween, Big Business for Therapists Treating Dissociative Identity Disorder & Ritual Abuse

October 31st, Halloween. A time to cash in on patient angst is Big Business for psychotherapists, drug companies and hospitals as I will explain in this post. What you will read below is not my academic conclusions or my distorted and naive understanding of what occurs for patients who believe they have multiple personalities due to being ritually tortured as a child. Instead, you will read about what I experienced while a patient. My psychiatrist convinced me that I was ritually abused as a child. In short, I’ve been there – done that. This is what I and other patients I knew experienced during the Halloween holidays – every year.

~~~~

The Guibourg Mass by Henry de Malvost, in the ...

The Guibourg Mass by Henry de Malvost, in the book Le Satanisme et la Magie by Jules Bois, Paris, 1903. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Psychotherapists treating women for multiple personalities after diagnosing them with Dissociative Identity Disorder is shameful because their patients routinely regress into a heap of emotions and new memories of child abuse that may also include ritual abuse and on the far extreme, satanic ritual abuse. Therapists entrenched in this psychological treatment usually do not find it their responsibility to question their patient’s memories or to assist their patients in verifying their recall no matter how outrageous and implausible the alleged ritual abuse remembered may be.

Instead, these particular therapists support and encourage more and more memories of ritualized child abuse that may include satanic worship and torture. What occurs in the lives of these patients, usually exhausted and worn down from years of therapy sessions, is intense fear and hyperviligence. Due to constant reinforcement for alleged ritual abuse during psychotherapy and in Internet chat forms, they constantly look over their shoulder believing their alleged persecutors are coming for them. These women are convinced their abusers are planning to abduct them and/or cause them to return to the ritual cult to continue the torture by sending a pre-determined message to commit suicide via an encoded telephone message, for example, because they dared to tell secrets held by the cult they remember being forced to participate in as children.

Most of these ritual and satanic memories of torture, murder, rape, and consuming human body parts are bogus but again, therapists do not care, find it necessary, or their responsibility to find the truth behind these absurd memories born during psychological treatment or other influential sources like self-help books and Internet forums full of like-minded individuals. I am not naive enough to think that ritualized abuse does not happen but take a look at how these particular memories and then look at the content. What you will likely find is that memories were born in therapy or in an environment that encourages and supports widespread ritualized torture of children are more than absurd.

No need to take my word for it. Do a simple Google search using terms like:

  • dissociative identity disorder blogs or websites
  • multiple personality disorder blogs or websites
  • childhood ritual abuse memories
  • therapists who treat satanic ritual abuse

Or, if you would like more information check yahoo groups. There, you will find hundreds of groups who pander to these types of memories and alleged ritualized and satanic behaviors.

Halloween is big, big business for psychotherapists who treat patients in an environment that supports and encourages digging for memories of satanic and other ritualized childhood abuse that, upon close examination, are often implausible and too outrageous to have actually occurred.

Does the implausible nature of patient recall deter these therapists from continuing to encourage these questionable and outrageous memories? No. It’s big business, job security, and a hefty paycheck usually cut from an insurance company unaware of what is actually occurring behind the closed doors of therapy largely because these therapists use other diagnostic categories to bill insurance reimbursement such as Borderline Personality Disorder, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders among others. Insurance companies are unlikely to reimburse treatment for satanic ritual abuse if a therapist was honest about what they are treating behind closed doors. Is fudging medical records for reimbursement illegal? You bet. Fraudulent data supplied to insurance companies for a paycheck illegal? You bet. Does that deter therapists from doing it? No.

The Halloween season is believed to be the most dangerous time of year for patients allegedly ritually abused as children because it is inherently chock full of celebrations – again it’s a huge payday for therapists. Patients being treated for ritual and/or satanic abuse are in a heightened state of anxiety that is often so crippling they are unable to function on a day to day basis. When these patients are parents, their children are impacted as they too experience a parent in a state of unrest, chaos, and unrelenting fear. Watching a parent disintegrate must be terrifying for a child.

So, what actually occurs in the lives of the psychotherapist? Overtime. Overtime. Overtime. Booking double sessions and/or additional weekly or daily sessions to support their patients through the terrifying Halloween season become the norm and are planned for year after year after year.

What actually occurs for Big Pharma? Sales. Sales. Sales. As the anxiety levels and suicidal thinking and/or attempts begin to unfold, more psychiatric drugs are prescribed. Anxiety meds, sleeping meds, antipsychotic meds – anything that will quell the fear and anxiety of those believing they will be abducted and returned to a cult to be sacrificed or otherwise tortured. Anyone under these conditions would cry out for help to get through a day while awaiting the inevitable October 31st — Halloween.

What actually occurs for Hospitals and psychiatric units? They fill up with patients believing one or more of their alter personalities have been ritually tortured as a child and are terrified their alleged abductors are after them. Hospitals and therapist offices are safe havens. Hospital beds fill up as do emergency rooms ill equipped to understand or cope with this type of patient.

Halloween. Autumn. Big business for psychotherapists.

Creative Commons License
Halloween, Big Business for Therapists Treating Dissociative Identity Disorder & Ritual Abuse by Jeanette Bartha is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at www.mentalhealthmatters2.wordpress.com.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.mentalhealthmatters2.wordpress.com.

Dissociative Identity Disorder Kills

Originally published under the title: “MPD Kills” when Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) was called Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD). The basic premise of the disorder and treatment, however, have not changed significantly.

_________

MPD Kills

by Jaye D. Bartha

“Jaye, Betty Ann is dead!” she screamed into my ear through the phone.

“What!” I answered in horror.

“Yeah. She took an overdose.” Kathy frantically gave me blow by blow details as if she were an excited sports commentator. Gasping, she continued, “They saved her but when she returned to the hospital she ran from her wheelchair, sprinted down the hall, collapsed and died right there on the spot. She’s dead! Betty Ann is dead! She was my best friend. What am I going to do?”

Betty Ann was 26. Her death was the second I dealt with while a patient of repressed memory therapy. I buried two more friends, before realizing Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) was a bogus diagnosis, and one more after that. Five friends dead. Each death occurred during treatment for (MPD), now referred to as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID).

It seems to me that patients in treatment for MPD/DID often live in a chronic state of suicidal thinking and that acting out suicidal impulses is a by-product of treatment. While the intense search for memories of abuse is in progress, I observed doctors and hospital staff making provisions for suicidal behavior. They hospitalized patients, increased medication, instituted suicide watches, and in extreme cases implemented physical and/or chemical restraints.

In my experience, suicide is a pervasive problem of treatment for MPD/DID and should be yanked out of the dark corner of treatment closets. This diagnosis is a serious threat to human life and ought to be addressed as such. The medical community supporting the MPD/DID diagnosis often views suicide as the patient’s inability to cope with the horrors of an abusive past when, in fact, it is the treatment itself that is likely the culprit.

Originally published in the FMS Foundation  Newsletter, April/May 1999  Vol. 8  No. 3, ISSN #1069-0484. Copyright (c) 1998  by  the  FMS Foundation

Reprint by permission only.

Creative Commons License
DID Kills by Jeanette BArtha is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.mentalhealthmatters2.wordpress.com.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.mentalhealthmatters2.wordpress.com.

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