Ivory Garden DID: Conference on Dissociative Identity Disorder & multiple personalities

Trauma & Dissociation Conference

Seattle, Washington, USA  | October 3-5, 2014

Ivory Garden Dissociative Identity Disorder (IG or Ivory Garden) is an online forum for survivors of child abuse, and other trauma that has been in operation for over 6 years and has over 1600 members. Most members of IG define themselves as multiple. Some members are formally diagnosed and in treatment for Dissociative Identity Disorder, or multiple personalities while others are newly diagnosed, self-diagnosed, or showing symptoms of multiple personalities according to self-reports.

Currently, the forum is owned by Pat Goodwin who uses the screen names, “Felicity” or “Felicity Lee”. Felicity and her board of administrators and forum moderators oversee the day to day operation of the group and forums for conversations, chat rooms, and educational videos.

Speakers scheduled to address attendees include, in alphabetical order:

SUSAN PEASE BANITT, LCSW, RYT. (Licensed Clinical Social Worker). Ms. Banitt is a psychotherapist, author, an considered an expert in traumatic states and alternative healing modalities according to Ivory Garden administrators.

LAURA S. BROWN, Ph.D, (USA, Doctor of Philosophy). Dr. Brown is a psychotherapist, author on feminist therapy, and the founder and Director of the Fremont Community Therapy Project in Seattle, Washington, USA.

DAVID L. CALOF. No credentials listed. Mr. Calof is a psychotherapist, author, and author.

LYNN CROOK, M.Ed. (USA, Master’s of Education). Ms. Crook is a former-psychotherapist, a former-patient of repressed memory, survivor, and writer.

CAREN DILMAN, LMFT. (USA, Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. No information available.

ELLIE FIELDS, LPC, LIMHP, CPC. Ms. Fields is a member of the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD), the premier organization focused on multiple personalities, dissociation, and other trauma. She uses Cognitive Behavioral Therapy,(CBT), Ego State Therapy, EMDR, Hypnosis, Thought Field Therapy, Somatic Psychotherapy and Energy/Reiki work.

JOAN C. GOLSTON, DCSW, LICSW. Ms. Golston is a psychotherapist, supervisor, and consultant in private practice. She is the former chair of the National Association of Social Workers, Washington (state) Chapter Ethics Committee. Ms. Golston is associated with the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD), the premier organization focused on multiple personalities, dissociation, and other trauma.

NEDRA JOHNSON, M.A., M.F.T..  (USA, Master’s of Arts, Marriage & Family Therapist). Ms. Johnson is a psychotherapist and author.

 LANI KENTTherapeutic Arts Facilitator. She is a Therapeutic Arts Facilitator, Speaker, Writer and Artist according to conference administrators. There are no professional credentials listed.

SANDRA L. PAULSEN, Ph.D. (USA, doctor of philosophy). Dr. Paulsen is an author and advocate of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), a somewhat controversial form of trauma treatment.

COLIN ROSS, M.D.   (USA, medical doctor). Dr. Ross is the founder of The Colin Ross Institute in Dallas, Texas and is director of three hospitals offering treatment for multiple personalities and satanic ritual abuse.

MARVIN THOMAS. Mr. Thomas is a psychotherapist. There are no professional credentials listed.

The Washington State Chapter of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) is offering continuing education credits, required of social worker’s to retain licensing. Provider number  #1975-362.

Visit the Ivory Garden DID websites for further information.

 

Mercy Ministries Admits Misrepresentation: Repays Clients $120,000

Charity admits cheating women

Anne-Louise Brown | 19th December 2009 2:50 AM

“CHRISTIAN charity Mercy Ministries, which ran a home for young women in need on the Sunshine Coast, has admitted to false, misleading and deceptive conduct.

The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission said the Sydney-based group, had apologized for misrepresenting its services and repaid about $120,000 to affected women.

The charity ran two homes for troubled young women – at Glenview on the Coast and in Sydney.

Both homes have closed. The Glenview centre shut its doors last July amid controversy.

ACCC chairman Graeme Samuel said Mercy Ministries had advertised its services as free, but then asked residents to sign over their Centrelink payments in return for treatment. …

…“Also, Mercy Ministries misrepresented that it offered professional support from qualified specialists when in fact that was not the case.”Last year, the group became embroiled in a national controversy when three girls who had gone through the program, including two on the Sunshine Coast, went public with their claims of mistreatment.

They alleged the six-month programs had left them suicidal.

Retrieved 03/15/12. Charity Admits Cheating Women

YouTube: Interrogation or Child Abuse? The Michael Crowe Story

Michael Crowe, shown in this YouTube video is interrogated after the murder of his sister.

This is an excellent example of how to elicit a false confession/information from a subject/patient. Think it can’t happen to you? I didn’t either.

Retrieved 7/12/11. Interrogation or Child Abuse?

National Association of Social Workers (USA) Offers Educational Credits for Attending Multiple Personality Disorder Conference

Calling all Social Workers!

(and others)

If you take issue with dissociative identity disorder/multiple personalities being a valid disorder, it’s time to speak up – well, you missed your chance before the conference in Florida, USA, but it’s your responsibility and never too late. Even anonymous letters are good enough.

Unless the National Association of Social Workers in the United States discontinues offering continuing educational credits (mandatory for retaining a license to practice) their profession will continue to be haunted by pseudo-science masquerading as viable psychological treatment.

Social workers evidently support the belief in multiple personalities and the practice of psychotherapy aimed to treat dissociative identity disorder.

A conference: An Infinite Mind “Healing Together, was held in Florida, USA.

According to the conference website:

“This program is approved by the The National Association of Social Workers for clinical social work continuing education contact hours.This program has been approved by the National Board for Certified Counselor. …”

Social Work

Image by Army Medicine via Flickr

I almost wish I hadn’t looked into the National Association of Social Workers to see what values they hold and what their standards and ethics are. But I did, and here is what I found:

Code of Ethics

Value: Competence

Ethical Principle: Social workers practice within their areas of competence and develop and enhance their professional expertise.

Social workers continually strive to increase their professional knowledge* and skills and to apply them in practice. Social workers should aspire to contribute to the knowledge base of the profession.

1.03 Informed Consent (paragraph one)

(a) …Social workers should use clear and understandable language to inform clients of the purpose of the services, risks related to the services …”

1.04 Competence

(c) When generally recognized standards do not exist with respect to an emerging area of practice, social workers should exercise careful judgment and take responsible steps …to ensure the competence of their work and to protect clients from harm.

3.08 Continuing Education and Staff Development

“Continuing education and staff development should address current knowledge and emerging developments related to social work practice and ethics.

4.01 Competence

(a) Social workers should accept responsibility or employment only on the basis of existing competence or the intention to acquire the necessary competence.

(b) …should strive to become and remain proficient in professional practice and the performance of professional functions …critically examine and keep current with emerging knowledge … routinely review the professional literature and participate in continuing education ….

(c) …should base practice on recognized knowledge, including empirically based knowledge, relevant to social work and social work ethics.

5.01 Integrity of the Profession

(b) …Social workers should protect, enhance, and improve the integrity of the profession through appropriate study and research, active discussion, and responsible criticism of the profession.

(e) Social workers should act to prevent the unauthorized and unqualified practice of social work.

5.02 Evaluation and Research

(c) Social workers should critically examine and keep current with emerging knowledge relevant to social work and fully use evaluation and research evidence in their professional practice.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The National Association of Social Workers (NASW) has a lot of thinking and work to do before their code of ethics reflects their behavior. Since they support the practice of treating multiple personality disorder/dissociative identity disorder, what does that say about their lack of scientific training being a necessity for practice? Evidentially, social workers do not find science necessary.

When continuing education credits, annual schooling that enable social workers to retain a license to practice, are offered in areas that do not show scientific rigor, all patients and their families suffer.

Over and over in the document above uses the words: ethics, values, knowledge, professional. What dictionary are they using to define their terms?

The actual beliefs of the NASW become transparent when the dots are connected between the programs they supports for continuing education credits – – – – and their mission statement. What is on paper and what they profess to stand for are at odds and rather flimsy.

I doubt that many social workers actually know what is in their code of ethics. If they do, why are they supporting treatment for a psychiatric condition, multiple personalities, that is steeped in decades of controversy and documented patient harm?

I know social workers that I hold in high-regard. They are hard-working and dedicated to patient welfare. So this critique is meant as a criticism of their governing body rather than members who have few choices if they want to keep their license to practice. That fact, however, does not offer asylum from responsibility and knowledge about the organization that they support.

Perhaps a social worker will read this and inform/educate the rest of us about why the NASW turns their back on people who trust them to be honest about research and therapeutic practices both in general, and specifically in regards to dissociative identity disorder.

Resources available in Sybil Exposed: The Extraordinary Story Behind the Famous Multiple Personality Case

by Debbie Nathan

(blog post by Jeanette Bartha)

Publisher: Free Press, A Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., NY, NY, 2011

If multiple personalities, false memories, dissociative identity disorder, human memory, questionable child-abuse recall, false confessions, or repressed memories pique’ your interest, then you likely know about the infamous case of Sybil that splashed the American book market and cinema in the early 1970s.

According to Amazon Book Review, “Sybil Exposed draws from an enormous trail of papers, records, photos, and tapes to unearth the lives and passions of these three women whose story exploded into an epic movement with consequences beyond their wildest dreams. Set across the twentieth century and rooted in a time when few professional roles were available to women, this is a story of corrosive sexism, bold but unchecked ambition, runaway greed, utter human vulnerability, duplicity and shared delusion, shaky theories of psychoanalysis exuberantly and drastically practiced, and how one modest young woman’s life turned psychiatry on its head and radically changed the course of therapy—and our culture, as well.”

If you are interested in investigating the life of Shirley A. Mason AKA Sybil Dorset, Sybil Exposed is a one stop-shopping treasure of resources. The book has:

  • Acknowledgements, 6 pages pgs. 239-246.
  • Notes on chapters, 35 pages from pgs. 247-282.
  • Index, 14 pages from pgs. 283-297.

Author Debbie Nathan, is an award winning journalist who conducted massive research  throughout the United States for Sybil Exposed.

Ms. Nathan is the recipient of national and regional awards, including:

  • The H.L. Mencken Award for Investigative Journalism
  • PEN West Award for Journalism
  • Texas Institute of Letters Award for feature journalism
  • John Barlow Martin Award for Public Service Journalism

With over 30 years of reporting and publishing experience, Ms. Nathan specializes in sexual politics, sex panics particularly in relation to women and children, as well as immigration and the U.S. – Mexican border. She appears in the Academy Award-nominated documentary Capturing the Freidman’s, the story of accused child molesters, Arnold (now deceased) and his son, Jesse Friedman.

Ms. Nathan serves on the board of the National Center for Reason and Justice (NCRJ), a non-profit organization of advocates for intelligent and humane approaches to preventing child abuse and dealing with accused offenders. See About the NCRJ

More about the author on Amazon.com Book Review

Below is a list of resources used by the author including print media, professionals in the mental health field, professors, libraries, laypersons, former psychiatric patients, and films.

Shirley Ardell Mason (1923-1998) pseudonym, Sybil Isabel Dorsett

Mason was born and raised in Dodge Center, Minnesota, USA. The only child of Walter Mason (a carpenter and architect) and Martha Alice “Mattie” Hageman.

Resources used by author Debbie Nathan:

  • Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen, scholar
  • Peter Swales, historian
  • David Eichman, grandson of Shirley Mason’s step-mother, Florence Eichman Mason and David’s wife, Bonnie Eichman
  • Dan Houlihan, University of Minnesota at Mankato (where Shirley attended as an undergraduate)
  • Muriel Odden Coulter, the daughter of a dorm mate of Shirley
  • Dodge Center residents (Sybil/Shirley’s home town)
  • Miranda Marland, daughter of Shirley’s best childhood friend, Robert Moulton
  • Cousins of Shirley: Patricia Alcott, Lorna Gilbert, Arlene Christensen, Marcia Schmidt
  • Dr. Ronald Numbers, University of Wisconsin, an expert on Seventh-Day Adventism (Shirley’s religion)
  • T. Joe Willey, scholar
  • Jean Lane, Shirley’s best friend during college
  • Robert Rieber, John Jay College, NYC, emeritus psychology professor taught with Sybil author, Flora Schreiber
  • Dr. Herbert Spiegel, psychiatrist and hypnotherapist (worked briefly with Shirley)
  • Marcia Greenleaf, psychologist

Psychiatrists practicing in or near New York City during 1950’s & 1960’s when Shirley’s psychoanalyst, Cornelia Wilbur, M.D. was there:

  • Dr. Ann Ruth Turkel
  • Dr. Sylvia Brecher Marer (Rhode Island)
  • Dr. Nathaniel Lehrman
  • Dr. Arthur Zitrin

Dr. Cornelia Wilbur (1908–1992). Born, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, University of Michigan, 1939, M.D. (medical doctor)

Resources for life of Dr. Cornelia Wilbur, M.D.

  • Robert Schade, cousin
  • Deborah Brown Kovac, a niece of Dr. Wilbur’s second husband
  • Neil Burwell, nephew
  • Warner Burwell. great-nephew
  • Douglas Burwell, great-nephew
  • Brenda Burwell Canning, great-niece (lived with Dr. Wilbur in the 1970s)
  • Ruth Barstow Dixon, cousin
  • Dr. Richard Dieterle
  • Caroline Dieterle
  • Dr. Robert Dieterle, psychiatrist (Dr. Wilbur’s professor and mentor), 1930’s
  • Harald Naess, historian of Scandinavian immigration

Others who knew or worked with Dr. Cornelia Wilbur:

  • Dr. Arnold Ludwig, worked with Dr. Wilbur at University of Kentucky, 1970s
  • Dr. Lon Hays
  • Dr. Rosa K. Riggs
  • Dr. German Gutierrez

Others

  • John and Patsy McGee – lived on same street in Dr. Wilbur’s neighborhood
  • Roberta Guy – Shirley Mason’s and Dr. Wilbur’s home-care nurse
  • Mark Boultinghouse – Shirley’s art dealer
  • Dr. Joseph Bieron, chemist and archivist of historical records of his profession

Libraries and Organizations:

  • State Historical Society, St. Paul, MN, USA,  – archival research
  • New York Academy of Medicine
  • American Society for Journalists and Authors, Director Alexandra Owens
  • Society for Magazine Writers
  • University of Iowa Library, special collections department
  • Historical Society in Dodge County, Minnesota, past Director, Earlene Kinga
  • Seventh-Day Adventist Church General Conference, Maryland
  • National Library of Medicine, Maryland
  • John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Special Collections Department
  • Ellen Belcher, Head Archivist, John Jay College of Criminal Justice
  • Tania Colmant-Donabedian, Assistant Archivist, John Jay College of Criminal Justice
  • Larry Sullivan, Director, John Jay College of Criminal Justice
  • Peter Tytell, research assistant to Ms. Nathan
  • Dr. Leah Dickstein, holds several files and papers which belonged to Dr. Wilbur

Scholars, writers, professionals in the mental health field, former-psychiatric patients, and activists

  • Sherrill Mulhern
  • Dr. Harold Mersey, DM FRCP (London) FRCP(C) FRCPsych
  • Evan Harrington
  • Pamela Freyd, Ph.D.
  • Mark Pendergrast, author/journalist
  • Ben Harris
  • Jan Haaken
  • Jeanette Bartha, B.S., psychology, journalist, blogger
  • Bill Dobbs
  • John Bloise
  • Those wishing to remain anonymous

Former Hollywood Celebrities regarding the film, Sybil

  • Stewart Stern, screenwriter for Sybil telemovie
  • Diana Serra Cary – actress who played “Baby Peggy”

International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD)

  • Kathy Steele, former Director
  • Dr. Richard Kluft, M.D. (grateful to him, but he declined to discuss his work with Dr. Cornelia Wilbur) Dr. Kluft permitted Ms. Nathan to attend his presentation at ISSTD Conference
  • Barry Cohen
  • Dr. Vedat Sar
The above information was taken from the text of Sybil Exposed. Errors may be those of blogger rather than the author, Debbie Nathan.

updated: 9-26-14

 

 

 

 

Alters in Dissociative Identity Disorder Metaphors or Genuine Entities?

Clinical Psychology Review 22 (2002) 481–497

Harald Merckelbacha,Grant J. Devillyc, Eric Rassina,

Abstract
How should the different identities (i.e., alters) that are thought to be typical for dissociative identity disorder (DID) be interpreted? Are they just metaphors for different emotional states or are they truly autonomous entities that are capable of willful action?

This issue is important because it has implications for the way in which courts may handle cases that involve DID patients.

Referring to studies demonstrating that alters of DID patients differ in their memory performance or physiological profile, some authors have concluded that alters are more than just metaphors.

We argue that such line of reasoning is highly problematic.

There is little consensus among authors about the degree to which various types of memory information (implicit, explicit, procedural) may leak from one to the other alter. Without such theoretical accord, any given outcome of memory studies on DID may be taken as support for the assumption that alters are in some sense ‘‘real.’’

As physiological studies on alter activity often lack proper control conditions, most of them are inconclusive as to the status of alters. To date, neither memory studies nor psychobiological studies have delivered compelling evidence that alters of DID patients exist in a factual sense. As a matter of fact, results of these studies are open to multiple interpretations and in no way refute an interpretation of alters in terms of metaphors for different emotional states.

Conclusion
The older literature on DID offers some strong claims as to the literal status of alters. Anecdotal reports of alters differing in their allergic reactions, in their response to medication, and in their optical functioning abound (e.g., Miller, 1989). These anecdotes
led Simpson (1997, p. 124) to pose the following question: ‘‘Why not claim that they wear different size shoes?’’ …

Still, a literal interpretation of alters can also be found in the DSM-IV and in many serious articles on DID. In their thought-provoking essay on DID, Lilienfeld et al. (1999) present several examples of treatment interventions that seem to be predicated on the belief that alters in DID are independent agents. These examples include asking to meet an alter, giving names to alters, and encouraging alters to write letters to each other. On the basis of these examples, Lilienfeld et al. (p. 513) conclude that ‘‘many or most influential authors in the DID treatment literature treat alters as independent entities or even personalities, at least during the early phase of treatment.’’

It is this literal view on alters …. Yet, theoretical and methodological shortcomings of these studies restrict any conclusions that can be drawn from them. Memory studies on DID suffer from the absence of articulated theories about memory functioning in DID.

Psychobiological studies, on the other hand, primarily suffer from the absence of proper control conditions. This is unfortunate, becauseit is now perfectly possible to specify control conditions for this type of research.

…Neither memory studies, nor psychobiological studies have elicited compelling evidence
that supports a literal view on alters in DID. …A case in point is Gleaves (1996, p. 48) who notes that ‘‘what is critical to understand is that acknowledging a patient with DID to have genuine experiences of alters as real people or entities is not the same as stating that alters are actually real people or entities.’’ Obviously, this conceptualization of alters is reminiscent of the position that alters exist largely as a result of role enactment in which patients become absorbed.

Thus, it is probably time to de-emphasize the literal interpretation of alters advocated by the DSM-IV. …

…Meanwhile, the hypothesis that alters in DID may be nothing more than the result of some patients’ tendency to attribute causality to inside agents, only becomes a coherent position when one seriously considers the possibility that expressed alters are metaphors rather than real entities.

Confirmation bias: why psychiatrists stick to wrong preliminary diagnoses

Psychol Med. 2011 May 20:1-9
Mendel R, Traut-Mattausch E, Jonas E, Leucht S, Kane JM, Maino K, Kissling W, Hamann J.

Source

Department of Psychiatry, Technische Universität München, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Diagnostic errors can have tremendous consequences because they can result in a fatal chain of wrong decisions. Experts assume that physicians’ desire to confirm a preliminary diagnosis while failing to seek contradictory evidence is an important reason for wrong diagnoses. This tendency is called ‘confirmation bias’. Method To study whether psychiatrists and medical students are prone to confirmation bias and whether confirmation bias leads to poor diagnostic accuracy in psychiatry, we presented an experimental decision task to 75 psychiatrists and 75 medical students.

RESULTS:

A total of 13% of psychiatrists and 25% of students showed confirmation bias when searching for new information after having made a preliminary diagnosis. Participants conducting a confirmatory information search were significantly less likely to make the correct diagnosis compared to participants searching in a disconfirmatory or balanced way [multiple logistic regression: odds ratio (OR) 7.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.53-21.22, p<0.001; OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.23-8.56, p=0.02]. Psychiatrists conducting a confirmatory search made a wrong diagnosis in 70% of the cases compared to 27% or 47% for a disconfirmatory or balanced information search (students: 63, 26 and 27%). Participants choosing the wrong diagnosis also prescribed different treatment options compared with participants choosing the correct diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Confirmatory information search harbors the risk of wrong diagnostic decisions. Psychiatrists should be aware of confirmation bias and instructed in techniques to reduce bias.

Retrieved 03/29/12.

On the Wisdom of Counting to Ten: Personal and social dangers of anger expression, by Carol Tavris, PhD

This post offers a different perspective on anger expression – and the perils of doing so – that I think is pertinent to discussions about treatment for multiple personalities via the diagnosis of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID).

Unfortunately, many therapists who treat multiple personalities believe anger is an emotion that needs to be expressed as often and as deep as it runs –  if one desires to get better.. crap, crap, crap thinking. Been there, bought the script.

What I experienced (and witnessed from other patients) during Repressed Memory Therapy, is that anger leads to more anger the more the expression of anger is angrily encouraged and expressed by angry alter personalities. Make sense? Of course not.

Treatment for Dissociative Identity Disorder is largely about suppressed or repressed anger and how it  impacts the sufferer. Therapists and patients alike think that expressing deep anger is cathartic and, therefore, doing so is one of the focuses of treatment.

I have a few simple questions:

  • How many alter personalities does one need to create before the anger-well dries up?
  • How many years do alter personalities have to express themselves before the anger-well  dries up?
  • At what point is the expression of anger finished?
  • How much anger, and the expression of it, is too much?
  • At what point do alter personalities learn that living in a state of anger is not physically or emotionally healthy?
  • When are rageful alters calmed?
Various personality states, as noted by people who have them, sometimes include very angry and often destructive alter personalities. These alters sometimes engage in self-harm and other suicidal-like expressions that may lead to emergency treatment. Make sense? Of course not.

Coping with disappointment, hurt, and learning to deal with anger and other uncomfortable emotions is not usually an important focus during treatment for multiple personalities. The primary focus of this long-term treatment is trying to remember abuse, sometimes decades after it allegedly occurred. Be mad, be angry, rage.

What happens when someone becomes overwhelmed with intense emotions and does not know how to come down or cope with the aftermath? Spiking up and down emotions is a hallmark of Dissociative Identity Disorder treatment.

I have an idea.

Lets encourage DID treatment to shift it’s focus from the right-to-rage- like-a-child to the right-to-act-like-an adult model of mental health care? Raging is not necessarily cathartic and can become a vehicle to more anger and out of control emotions.

Give Carol Tavris, Ph.D. a read. Pick any publication or book. Take a peek into a different way of  being – challenge archaic ways of thinking. Come on  – take a chance on a more peaceful existence.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
English: Carol Tavris receives an award for he...

Carol Tavris receives an award for “Mistakes Were Made: But Not by Me”. CFI Headquarters, Hollywood. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)*

On the wisdom of counting to ten: Personal and social dangers of anger expression.
Tavris, Carol
Review of Personality & Social Psychology, Vol 5, 1984, 170-191.
This article discusses whether the expression of anger is always a good reaction. Some theoretical and methodological issues that cause confusion in the study of anger include definitions of anger, metaphors for anger, and the emphasis in American psychology on a universality of anger among individuals and cultures.
          A review of the literature on the dangers of expressing anger indicates that while suppressing anger is obviously unhealthy for Type B (noncoronary prone) individuals, expressing anger is just as obviously bad for hostile Type A (coronary prone) individuals who may block off an important route to close relationships.
          The psychological consequences of dealing with anger by talking it out or acting it out are reviewed, and the notion of catharsis is addressed. The author concludes that expressing anger may have cumulatively unhealthy effects: Such repeated anger expression tends to solidify a hostile attitude; emphasize the emotion of anger to the exclusion of other, simultaneous emotions; create an angry habit; rile up one’s opposition; and make other people angrier.
*Owner of the pic above please contact me so I can give you proper credit. JB
updated: 9-23-14.

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Directory: Internal Family Systems AKA “parts therapy”: websites & blogs

Internal Family Systems therapy appears to have many of the hallmarks of repressed memory therapy that ignited the sweeping interest in multiple personality disorder or MPD, in the mid 1980s. The disorder was renamed dissociative identity disorder (DID) after the diagnosis and treatment suffered unprecedented negative press when psychotherapists and mental health facilities were getting sued by severely injured patients and their families. Supporters of DID disagree with me. Professional mental health-care workers claim the name changed to more clearly define the disorder. I don’t buy it, but maybe you do.

Below is a growing list of blogs and websites promoting the practice of Internal Family Systems (IFS). This treatment has patients/clients examine “parts” of their personalities which is what led to the proliferation of multiple personalities in the mid 1980s. Internal Family Systems therapy seems to be repackaged old theories and warrants further examination from all of us.

The deeper I get into researching IFS, sometimes referred to as “parts therapy” the more evidence there is that hypnotic techniques are used in various forms such as guided imagery. The American Psychiatric Association put out warnings decades ago about the use of hypnosis to address alleged repressed memories.

Below is a list of sites linked to parts therapy and Internal Family System – you decide if it is a valid therapeutic intervention for psychiatric distress that will lead to mental health or if it has the potential to put patients in harms way.

~~~

United KingdomManchester Hypnotherapy, Training programme: parts therapy

United States, Washington, D.C.:Argosy University

Awaken to the Truth (video)

Forever Families

United Kingdom: Hypnotic Healing

Hypnothoughts

Inner Well

Center for Self Leadership: Internal Family Systems

Mental Health Survival Guide

South Africa, Cape Town: Parts Therapy

Parts Therapy for Inner Conflict Resolution

Sit by Me

Talk about Marriage

The MethoBlog (Methodist religion)

The Pondering Prophet

Hypnosis Training Video

USA: Vermont -Integrative Therapy

 

Helen: Woman with 7 Personalities, Part 2 (YouTube)

Running Time: 15:01

This video includes interviews with:

Dr. Larry Culliford, psychiatrist, Royal College of Psychiatrists

Dr. Joan Coleman, psychiatrist who works with ritually & satanically abused people.

Overview:

  • Helen and her friend visit a former teacher
  • It is reveled that Helen is a recovering alcoholic
  • Overt eye blinking to indicate personality change & display of child personalities and baby talk
  • Reveled that Helen cannot hold a job, is living in a counseling flat (public housing) and survives on benefits
  • Shows piles of pills & bottles of medicines that Helen consumes including: sleeping pills, anti-psychotics, antidepressants, central nervous system depressant – Valium, and many over the counter products to quell the side-effects of these pharmaceutical drugs
  • Minute 5:20 Helen states she overdosed on pills over 100 times

Her friend continues the quest to find out what is causing Helen so much pain.

  • Minute 9:20 Helen claims she was “severely abused as a child”
  •           10: 39 Dr. Larry Culliford interview

The quest to find who is responsible for Helen’s condition

  • Minute 13:30 ritual and satanic ritual abuse introduced
  •             13:51 Dr. Joan Coleman interview

Retrieved  10/07/11. YouTube: Woman with 7 personalities Part 2

Readers: What to do if this blog seems to have disappeared

Hello everyone.

Why this blog went black for a few hours.

A year ago, I was maliciously reported to WordPress for copyright infringement by the owner of Ivory Garden Dissociative Identity Disorder, an online survivor’s group. The owner of this group objected to the inclusion of her website address on this blog, although the address is all over the Internet – that’s it! Following a quick investigation, this blog was reinstated.

If there is a need, I will post the complaint. At this juncture, I am not interested in a harangue about the matter.

If this blog goes black again, know that I am busy getting it reinstated. Any future copyright infringement complaints by any and all persons or groups, it will be handled swiftly through any and all legal channels available.

Thank you for reading, posting, and for taking part in conversations and discussions. We talk about difficult topics but I think most who come here enjoy the exchanges we have. I sure do.

Best to each of you. Jeanette

Update & revision: 09-22-14.

DMCA.com

Dr. Phil Exposes Deranged Psychotherapist

Deranged psychotherapist? May seem like an oxymoron – but it’s reality this time.

It’s hardly news that the Dr. Phil Show, a psychotherapy for entertainment venue taped in the United States, has at it’s core the exploitation of human tragedy for viewer consumption. Watching the dysfunction of other people can offer us a feeling of wellness and an opportunity to say: “Hey, glad that’s not me!” or “And we thought our family was bad.”

The show has it’s merits. It offers viewers information and educates the public about mental health issues. Whether or not Dr. Phil exploits patients and their families is, in my account, a question every viewer must ask and answer for themselves – while indulging in the voyeurism the television show offers.

On Friday, January 12th, 2013, the Dr. Phil show aired a program titled: Bipolar and Mentally Ill Moms. The producers slid in the Dissociative Identity Disorder/multiple personality diagnosis and lifestyle under that title. Why that decision was made is up for grabs. While I think a critique of the show is in order, it’s  a blog post left for another day. If interested in the show, keep an eye on video-clips on YouTube where full-length episodes of Dr. Phil eventually appear.

Here is the synopsis from the Dr. Phil website regarding Jenny – a mother claiming to suffer from Dissociative Identity Disorder, commonly known as multiple personalities.

“Then, Jenny is a 53-year-old mother of three who says she suffers from dissociative identity disorder, formally known as multiple personality disorder. She says she has 22 “alters,” whom she calls “parts of me.” Jenny reveals the traumatic childhood experiences that she believes caused her to take on multiple personalities. And, Jenny’s son, Robert, 30, shares what life was like growing up with Jenny. Then, Jenny’s biographer, Judy, a retired therapist who wrote Twenty-Two Faces, based on Jenny’s journals and their sessions together, joins the show to defend herself against accusations that she may be exploiting Jenny.”  Retrieved 01/12/13. http://drphil.com/shows/show/1947/

Judy, the retired psychotherapist claiming to have treated Jenny for 20 years published her patient’s biography- I refuse to offer the title (currently out of stock at Amazon).

Before I go further, I want to say “Thank you” to Jenny’s son, Robert, for appearing on the show. Robert offered facts about his mother’s life saying that the biography does not correspond with his family narrative. The Dr. Phil show offered a very important fact in this patient/therapist drama – the therapist sued Robert so she could retain lifetime rights to his mother’s story. Viewers learned that the therapist is reaping monetary gain from her patient’s life.

Moving forward:

The Dr. Phil show gave viewers the opportunity to see multiple personalities and the diagnosis of Dissociative Identity Disorder for what it is – absurd. The show highlighted how a deranged psychotherapist led her patient into a lifetime of mental illness and distress. The audience gasped and laughed at some of the therapist’s wild claims.

But for a woman and her family suffering under the direction of a psychotherapist-gone-mad, the show and biography would be laughable. Reality, however, begs compassion for a family exploited for monetary fame and gain by a psychotherapist – behavior that should be admonished by the psychiatric profession on ethical grounds. Will any psychotherapist, or psychiatric association, speak out and do so?.

I admit, I bought and read the book. I want to write an extensive book review, as Douglas Mesner, a Harvard journalist, took the time to do, but I can’t get myself to do it. This book is one of the most difficult reads I’ve mastered – because it is poorly written, disorganized, and contrived. I gave this biography my time and attention. I wrote extensive notes to myself outlining page numbers and evidence of contradictions and implausible plot twists. My notes, however, will unlikely morph into a book review. The book … will collect dust in my study.

You know what? In disgust, I can write no more.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Retrieved 01-12-13.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Further support of Jenny Hill and her therapist/friend/biographer Judy Byington-Weindorf

The Mom Series

HBO Documentary: America Undercover

This HBO documentary film shows the lives of people, and their therapists, who believe they have multiple personalities. The individuals in the film include a student, a former military sharp shooter, and a policeman among others.

The film runs near an hour and is worth the time if you would like to witness the hell and chaos in the lives of people who believe they suffer from multiple personalities and dissociative identity disorder. You will also get a clear experience of how therapists encourage and coerce people into believing they are possessed by other entities.

Multiple Personalities, HBO America Undercover

Psychotherapy and Patient Disinformation: Are patients getting correct information about their illness?

What does the Iraq war of 2003 have to do with mental illness? More than you might think.

Disinformation, the giving of false information intended to deceive or mislead, is not a new concept, but perhaps it is when associated with mental health care. It is difficult to think any practitioner, in this case psychotherapists, would knowingly give false information to their patients but that’s exactly what can happen when therapist-beliefs are more important than the science of psychiatry and psychology.

Yes, there is science behind the profession of psychotherapy. There are scientific studies on human behavior and related fields conducted in laboratories around the world every day but the public is generally unaware of this fact. Perhaps that is why, for example, arguments about the role memory plays in how we remember events and later recall them.

 ~~~~~

 

Memory for fact, fiction, and misinformation:

the Iraq War 2003

Author information 

Psychol Sci. 2005 Mar;16(3):190-5.

Abstract

Media coverage of the 2003 Iraq War frequently contained corrections and retractions of earlier information. For example, claims that Iraqi forces executed coalition prisoners of war after they surrendered were retracted the day after the claims were made. Similarly, tentative initial reports about the discovery of weapons of mass destruction were all later disconfirmed. We investigated the effects of these retractions and disconfirmations on people’s memory for and beliefs about war-related events in two coalition countries (Australia and the United States) and one country that opposed the war (Germany). Participants were queried about (a) true events, (b) events initially presented as fact but subsequently retracted, and (c) fictional events. Participants in the United States did not show sensitivity to the correction of misinformation, whereas participants in Australia and Germany discounted corrected misinformation. Our results are consistent with previous findings in that the differences between samples reflect greater suspicion about the motives underlying the war among people in Australia and Germany than among people in the United States.

 

Lewandowsky S, Stritzke WG, Oberauer K, Morales M. Memory for fact, fiction, and misinformation: the Iraq War 2003. Psychol Sci. 2005 Mar;16(3):190-5.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15733198

New Yorker: I Don’t Want to be Right



				

Dissociative Identity Disorder Kills

Originally published under the title: “MPD Kills” when Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) was called Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD). The basic premise of the disorder and treatment, however, have not changed significantly.

_________

MPD Kills

by Jaye D. Bartha

“Jaye, Betty Ann is dead!” she screamed into my ear through the phone.

“What!” I answered in horror.

“Yeah. She took an overdose.” Kathy frantically gave me blow by blow details as if she were an excited sports commentator. Gasping, she continued, “They saved her but when she returned to the hospital she ran from her wheelchair, sprinted down the hall, collapsed and died right there on the spot. She’s dead! Betty Ann is dead! She was my best friend. What am I going to do?”

Betty Ann was 26. Her death was the second I dealt with while a patient of repressed memory therapy. I buried two more friends, before realizing Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) was a bogus diagnosis, and one more after that. Five friends dead. Each death occurred during treatment for (MPD), now referred to as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID).

It seems to me that patients in treatment for MPD/DID often live in a chronic state of suicidal thinking and that acting out suicidal impulses is a by-product of treatment. While the intense search for memories of abuse is in progress, I observed doctors and hospital staff making provisions for suicidal behavior. They hospitalized patients, increased medication, instituted suicide watches, and in extreme cases implemented physical and/or chemical restraints.

In my experience, suicide is a pervasive problem of treatment for MPD/DID and should be yanked out of the dark corner of treatment closets. This diagnosis is a serious threat to human life and ought to be addressed as such. The medical community supporting the MPD/DID diagnosis often views suicide as the patient’s inability to cope with the horrors of an abusive past when, in fact, it is the treatment itself that is likely the culprit.

Originally published in the FMS Foundation  Newsletter, April/May 1999  Vol. 8  No. 3, ISSN #1069-0484. Copyright (c) 1998  by  the  FMS Foundation

Reprint by permission only.

Creative Commons License
DID Kills by Jeanette BArtha is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.mentalhealthmatters2.wordpress.com.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.mentalhealthmatters2.wordpress.com.

http://www.clipartbest.com/cliparts/Kcj/o5r/Kcjo5rgBi.jpeg

 

Books: How Multiple Personalities Can Be Created

Acocella, J., Creating Hysteria: women and multiple personality disorder, 1999.

Brainerd, C.J. & V.F. Reyna, The Science of False Memory, 2005.

Dawes, Robyn M., Everyday Irrationality: How Pseudo-Scientists, Lunatics, and the Rest of Us Systematically Fail to Think Rationally. 2001.

_____ House of Cards: Psychology and Psychotherapy Built on Myth. 1996.

Dineen, Tana, Dr., Manufacturing Victims: What the Psychology Industry is Doing to People. 2000, 3rd. Ed.

Fairlie, Jim, Unbreakable Bonds: ‘they know about you Dad’ (2010) Austin & Macauley Publishers

Goldstein, Eleanor, Farmer, Kevin. True Stories of False Memories. 1993.

Hirstein, William, Brain Fiction: Self-Deception and the Riddle of Confabulation. 2005.

Lalich, Janja, Take Back Your Life: Recovering from cults & abusive relationships.

Kilby, Jane. Violence and the Cultural Politics of Trauma. 2007.

Klein, Naomi. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. 1993.

Lifton, Robert J. , Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism: A Study of “Brainwashing” in China. 1961.

Lilienfeld, Scott O., Steven Jay Lynn, John Ruscio, and the late, great skeptic Barry L. Beyerstein. 50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology: Shattering Widespread Misconceptions about Human Behavior

Loftus, Elizabeth, Memory. 2nd Ed. 1980.

__________, Eyewitness Testimony. With a New Preface  by the Author.1996b.

Loftus, Elizabeth & Ketchem, Katherine, Witness for the Defense: The Accused, The Eyewitness and the Expert Who Puts Memory on Trial. 1992.

____________,  The Myth of Repressed Memory: False Memories and Allegations of Sexual Abuse. 1996a.

McHugh, Paul R. M.D., Try to Remember: Psychiatry’s Clash over Meaning, Memory, and Mind. 2008.

Maran, Meredith, My Lie: A True Story of False Memory. 2010.

Mercer, Jean; Sarner, Larry; and Rosa, Linda,  Attachment Therapy on Trial: The Torture and Death of Candace Newmaker. 2003.

Nathan, Debbie & Snedeker, Michael, Satan’s Silence: Ritual Abuse and the Making of a Modern American Witch Hunt. 2001.

Nathan, Debbie. Sybil Exposed: The Extraordinary Story Behind the Famous Multiple Personality Case. 2012

Ofshe, Richard, Watters, Ethan, Making Monsters: False Memories, Psychotherapy, and Sexual Hysteria. 1996.

Pendergrast, Mark, Victims of Memory: Incest Accusations and Shattered Lives. 1995.

Piper, August Jr., M.D.. Hoax and Reality: The Bizarre World of Multiple Personality Disorder. 1998.

Schacter, Daniel L., Ed., The Cognitive Neuropsychology of False Memories. 1999.

Schnider, Armin. The Confabulating Mind: How the Brain Creates Reality. 2008.

Tavris, Carol & Aronson, Elliot. Mistakes Were Made (but not by me): Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts. 2007.

Wassil-Grimm, Claudette, Diagnosis for Disaster: The Devastating Truth About False Memory. 1996.

Watters, Ethan & Ofshe, Richard. Therapy’s Delusions: The myth of the unconscious and the exploitation of today’s walking worried. 1999.

Whittier, Nancy. The Politics of Child Sexual Abuse: Emotion, Social Movements, and the State. 2009.

 

The Same Old Elephant ..by Richard Kluft, MD,PhD

Available online: 24 Jan 2012

Journal of Trauma & Dissociation

Abstract

We shall not cease from exploration, and the end of all our exploring will

be to arrive where we started and know the place for the first time.

T. S. Eliot (Little Gidding, 1971)

 

Sorry folks, this is all the abstract states on the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation web page. This article is by Richard Kluft, MD who is a prolific writer & researcher about multiple personalities and dissociative identity disorder and is a major player in the movement.

This scant abstract tells the public nothing. Article for purchase $36 US dollars. How’s that for easy access to information?

Got money?

updated 9-15-14.

Directory: Dissociative Identity Disorder & Multiple Personality Blogs, Websites, Support Groups, Forums, & Discussions.

Below are websites written by people who support the existence of multiple personalities & the diagnosis of Dissociative Identity Disorder and related topics such as: dissociation, repressed memories, delayed recall, massive repression, internal family systems, parts therapy, the non-existence of false memory, and related topics.

There is no disrespect intended to people who own these blogs and websites. This list was compiled to encourage readers to seek other opinions on issues and conversations presented on this blog.

The blogs and website owners listed below have the option of making their sites private and/or password protected; many have opted not to do so, therefore making their sites open to interested parties.

This list enables you to learn about the lifestyle, thought processes, and beliefs related to multiple personalities and Dissociative Identity Disorder.

I do not endorse or support any site listed below, nor do I condemn anyone for holding whatever beliefs they choose.

An elementary Internet search using Google groups, Yahoo groups, bing or other search engines will offer you the same information listed below. This list was compiled to offer you a short-cut to your quest for public information related to Dissociative Identity Disorder & multiple personalities.

These websites change constantly and every effort is made to keep it up to date.

22 Faces

2012 The Awakening

Abuse-Survivors – Google group, closed membership

A Canvas of the Minds

A Survivors Thoughts on Life

A Song of Life

A Survivors Thoughts on Life

All Psych, Alejandra Swartz

Alter Meets God the Father

Alternate Sources of Light

Alter Meets God the Father

An Infinite Mind

Ann’s Multiple World of Personality

Answers.Yahoo.com

Apart from Normal

Aspergers the Alien

Basic Information on Dissociative Identity Disorder

Being Emily Living Plural, Now private (update 01/08/13)

Bipolar Disorder – Living with it. No longer blogging (update 01/08/13)

Bongo is Me

Brett Jolly

Buffalopines Blog

Candycan and Co.: Living with Dissociative Identity Disorder

Chaos and Control

Christ the Healer Ministries

Christian Forums

Clinically Clueless

Coming Out of the Trees

Community: Wizard 

Confessions of a Madwoman

Confessions of a Sex Addict in Recovery

Containing Multitudes 

Coping with Dissociation

Coping with dissociative identity disorder- message board

Cosmopolitan Magazine, United Kingdom

Covenant Warriors Ministries 

Crazy in the Coconut

Daily Strength: Multiple Personality Support Group

Dawn Awakening: Living with Dissociative Identity Disorder in Australia

Delightfully Scattered Thoughts

Dichotomistic logic

DID MPD Info

DID Awareness, Ashley’s Blog (Now private, update 01/08/12)

DID World Map

Discussing Dissociation, Kathy Broady LCSW

Dissociative Disorders

courtesy extended, link removed by request 02-27-13

Dissociative Identity Disorder

Dissociative Identity Disorder Blog moved

Dissociative Identity Disorder and Me, Candycan & Co.

Dissociative Personality Disorder – Everythin you ever wanted to know about it

Don’t Call Me Sybil: Dehumanizing & Demystifying Dissociative Identity Disorder – Holly Gray – now private, update 11-26-13

Downward Spiral into the vortex, renamed 11-23-13 Downward Spiral

DP Self-Help Depersonalization Community

Dissociation Link – Australia

Dr. Deborah  renamed Dr. Deb Psychological Perspectives 11-26-13

Dr. M. Kay  11-23-13  renamed Dissociative Identity Disorder Blog by Kay L. Schlagel

Inside Voices

International Society for the Study of Trauma & Dissociation (ISST-D)

Into the Mind defunct, update 11-23-13.

Ivory Garden

Jeff: Living with Dissociative Identity Disorder

Jenny Sawlee defunct, updated 11-23-13

Journey of the Broken Pieces: Healing through life with dissociative identity disorder

Just Answer – chat forum

Just Call Me Frank

Kate is Rising

Kim Noble

Leslie’s Illusions

Life, Multiplied: Dissociative Identity Disorder, personified

Life’s a Committee

Life with Dissociative Identity Disorder

Like a Bird on a Wire  –  Private

Live-Natural – discussions

Living Multiple

Living with Bipolar Disorder, DID, and Childhood Abuse

Living Successfully with DID

Lost in a Fog

Lost Shadow Child’s Blog

Lothlorien: Healing Dissociative Identity Disorder

Loving My DID Girls – link may not connect   defunct, update  11-26-13

Loving Someone with DID   defunct  update, 11-26-13

Many Answers – New Zealand

Me, Myself and I – Name change to  Moodswings, Musings & Mania

Memoir of a Redemptive Life

Mental Political Parent,  defunct  update, 11-26-13

Missing in Sight

Moodswings, Musings and Mania

More Heads

Multiple Moments of Me

Multiple Personality – Google Groups

Multiple Personality Disorder Cure, Symptoms, & Information defunct update, 11-26-13

Multiple Voices: Christian Support Group for MPD/DID – renamed Multiple Voices

Multiplicity: The Missing Manual

My Anime List

My Clouds, My Storms & Multiple Personality Disorder

My Hidden Faces

My Thoughs On/In Dissociatiative Identity Disorder

Myriad Musings: A day in the life of a multiple

Neorlan, defunct update, 01-08-13

New Landscape: MPD/DID

News DID/MPD

Nimble Books, defunct, update 01-08-13.

Nothing in My Noggin

Nurse Deborah Wesson

OCD site

Our LIfe with MPD/DID

Pandora’s Project

Pavillion: Voices of Plurality in Action

Peace Pink

Personality Cafe

Protect Your Joys

Psych Central

Raven CV. Brook  defunct update, 11-26-13.

Rehab Info 

Resolving Memories of Childhood Abuse – renamed 11-26-13

Ritual Abuse

Robert Lindsay, Beyond Highbrow

Rose Roars, Child Sexual Abuse Survivor & DID/MPD  

Solene’s Blog  (private)

SIAD Stuck in a Doorway 

Sarah K. Reece, Holding My Childhood to Ransom, poetry, art, writing, mental health, life 

Sarah Tun A Life Examined

Sarah Take (private)

Scattered Pieces – defunct, update 11-23-13.

Science Clarified: Multiple personality disorder  

Seasons Change, and so Have I

Seeing Through Multiple Eyes

Sensuous Amberville

Shades of Ivory

Shadow Light’s Blog

Shape Shifters: Living with Dissociation – defunct update 11-23-13.

Silent Symphony

Six Billion Secrets defunct update 11-23-13.

Social Anxiety Support Forum

Straight Dope – The Straight Dope

Stephanie’s Safehavenl

Stuart Hayashi: BPD Awareness

Stuff Red Said, defunct, update 11-23-13.

Sunshine & Shadows Life with DID

Survivor Forum, defunce update 05/14/12. Try searching Kathy Broady or  www.SuvivorForum.com

Suzy-LivingSucessfully with DID,   renamed Living Successfully  11-23-13

Sybil’s Friend

Tattooed Multiple’s Waffle

The Beehive 27, name change, update 11-23-13,  Between the Minds – The Beehive

The little survivor No longer found, update 01-08-13.

The Multiplicity of Me, Now private, update 01/08/13.

The Natural Recovery Plan

The Orchestra, defunct update, 01/08/13.

The People Behind My Eyes

The Search for Clarity

The Soulful Heart Maps

Third of a Lifetime, Sarah E. Olson

Through My Eyes  defunct update, 11-23-13.

Twenty Two Faces by Judy Byington

Trauma & Dissociation

Trauma to Treasure

Uncommon Forum, name change, 11-23-13  Uncommon Knowledge

Undercoverdid’s Blog

Voices of Glass  defunct, update 11-23-13.

Vwoop Vwoop: Empty Memories

We Are One

What it’s like to live with multiple personality disorder?

What to Do About Me and D.I.D

Web MD 

Wild Minds

Wikipedia

Why Not: dissociative degu?

You Might be a Multiple if …

Zimbio

last update 09-12-14.

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Copyrights extend to updates.

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1904: Multiple Personality & Human Individuality, by Sidis & Goodhart

Multiple Personality:

An Experimental Investigation Into the Nature of Human Individuality

ISBN: 978-1-59147-626-9   Publication Date: 1904
APA Print-on-Demand books are currently unavailable for purchase. We apologize for the inconvenience.

This book looks at multiple personality through the lens of individuality. Each part deals with a specific aspect of multiple personality: personality, double personality, and finally, consciousness and multiple personality. The work of Parts I and III covers a period of eight years. Out of the material accumulated by Dr. Sidis and his collaborators, some experiments and observations of functional psychopathic cases have been utilized in the last part of this volume. The authors note that the case of double personality described in Part II is of great interest and is specially recommended to the reader’s attention. This case was investigated in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals.

Here is a link to the table of contents http://www.sidis.net/mpcontents.htm

Boris Sidis

Boris Sidis (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

~~~~~

Excerpt from wikipedia

Boris Sidis, Ph.D., M.D. October 12, 1867 – October 24, 1923) was a Ukrainian psychologist, physician, psychiatrist, and philosopher of education. Sidis founded the New York State Psychopathic Institute and the Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Boris Sidis eventually opposed mainstream psychology and Sigmund Freud, and thereby died ostracized.

From Google Books:

S. P. GOODHART, PH.B., M.D. Assistant Professor of Neurology, Columbia University Neurologist to the Montefiore Hospital NEW YORK CITY, USA

~~~~~~

I am finding old, old articles that refer to multiple personalities as “functional psychosis”. Unfortunately, this book is out of print and no longer a print-on-demand. Maybe one of you will get lucky and find it. JB

Updated: 09-15-14.

Bridging the Gap Between Clinical Research & Clinical Practice

Bridging the gap between clinical research and clinical practice: Introduction to the special section.
Teachman, Bethany A.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Hershenberg, Rachel; Vivian, Dina; Wolfe, Barry E.; Goldfried, Marvin R.
Psychotherapy, Vol 49(2), Jun 2012, 97-100.
Special Section: Research-Practice Integration.
 
Abstract
This Special Section, developed by the American Psychology Association‘s Division 12 (Clinical) 2011 Committee on Science and Practice, highlights different ideas to help bridge the gap between clinical research and clinical practice, and notes recent innovations that help make research–practice integration feasible.

The articles consider how to break down the barriers to enhance researcher–practitioner dialogue, as well as how to make ongoing outcome assessment feasible for clinicians. Moreover, the articles address how to promote training in evidence-based practice, and how to translate efficacy research into clinical practice and clinical insight into empirical study to better establish a two-way bridge between research and practice.

Ultimately, we hope this series can speak to many different types of psychologists, whether they work mainly as researchers or practitioners, so they can see new ways to integrate and learn from both research and practice. \
~~~~~~~~~~
Way to go American Psychology Association !

What We Know and What We Need to Learn About the Treatment of Dissociative Disorders

Journal of Trauma & Dissociation

Bethany L. Brand PhDa*

Volume 13, Issue 4, 2012. pages 387-396.

Available online: 31 May 2012

Abstract

In this editorial, I briefly review research design issues and the current treatment research for dissociative disorders (DD), discuss the limitations and challenges of conducting treatment studies for patients with DD, and conclude by describing what I see as the first wave and second wave in the field of dissociation.

Insurers and federally funded programs are increasingly requiring that treatment be empirically supported in order for treatment to be reimbursed. For example, psychoanalysis will no longer be reimbursed in The Netherlands because of what is perceived as a lack of empirical support.

Other countries have also established standards about the treatments that have sufficient empirical support to merit government payment. I believe it is only a matter of time before it is common for patients with DD to be required to seek out empirically supported treatment if they want treatment to be reimbursed.

We need to financially support treatment studies in order to develop a more solid empirical basis for the treatment of DD.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Finally.

Insurance companies are placing more requirements on empirically established therapies (those based on clinical observation only) used to treat dissociative identity disorder/multiple personalities. Insurers want evidence that the psychotherapy is effective probably because payment for services seems endless for this psychiatric diagnosis.

This article, unfortunately, seems to be more of a warning signal than a call for mental health providers to be responsible and provide mental health consumers with psychotherapy that has a record of working.

Since the American Psychiatric Association evidently has no intention of making such requirements of psychotherapy or those who practice it for a living, the policing of this powerful and influential Industry is left to the courts – usually when a patient and/or their families sue the provider – and/or to the Insurance Industry.

If the Insurance industry keeps losing money by providing coverage for therapies with no proven effectiveness yet requires years and years and sometimes decades of treatment, we can expect to see coverage limited or discontinued and a shift to proven effective treatment to increase.

Below are some links to aid in your understanding of the difference between scientific evidence & methods and that of empirical research and evidence based only on clinical-observation.

In short, empirical evidence means observation only. Scientific evidence must be observable And measurable using strictly established methods that evaluate a theory. It takes ideas therapists have – like the link between childhood sexual abuse and multiple personalities – to the next step beyond simple observation or empirical evidence.

Mental health care consumers using only empirical evidence (observation) – like that made by a psychotherapist during sessions to evaluate and prove the effectiveness of their therapy –  are buying therapy based on someone’s opinion, not science.

JB

What is empirical evidence?

  • Scientifically-based research from fields such as psychology, sociology, economics, and neuroscience, and especially from research in educational settings
  • Empirical data on performance used to compare, evaluate, and monitor progress

United States Department of Education

http://www2.ed.gov/nclb/methods/whatworks/eb/edlite-slide005.html

Empirical research is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience.

Empirical evidence (the record of one’s direct observations or experiences) can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively. Through quantifying the evidence or making sense of it in qualitative form, a researcher can answer empirical questions, which should be clearly defined and answerable with the evidence collected (usually called data).

Research design varies by field and by the question being investigated. Many researchers combine qualitative and quantitative forms of analysis to better answer questions which cannot be studied in laboratory settings, particularly in the social sciences and in education.

In some fields, quantitative research may begin with a research question (e.g., “Does listening to vocal music during the learning of a word list have an effect on later memory for these words?”) which is tested through experimentation in a lab. Usually, a researcher has a certain theory regarding the topic under investigation.

Based on this theory some statements, or hypotheses, will be proposed (e.g., “Listening to vocal music has a negative effect on learning a word list.”). From these hypotheses predictions about specific events are derived (e.g., “People who study a word list while listening to vocal music will remember fewer words on a later memory test than people who study a word list in silence.”). These predictions can then be tested with a suitable experiment.

Depending on the outcomes of the experiment, the theory on which the hypotheses and predictions were based will be supported or not.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empirical_research Retrieved 06/01/12.

Scientific Method – definition Wikipedia Retrieved 06/01/12.

To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.[2] The Oxford English Dictionary says that scientific method is: “a method or procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method

Alter Possession: Some demons are better left unexorcised

The Exorcist Steps, a reenactment close-up

Image by voteprime via Flickr

Agnieszka Tennant | posted 9/03/2001 12:00AM

Any respectable exorcist has heard about—if not agonized over—dissociative identity disorder (DID), an illness that sometimes resembles demonization. Consequently, many “dissociatives” stumble into the offices of exorcists and spiritual warfare counselors, who, they insist, must do something about it.

…Psychologists explain the controversial disorder in four ways, says John E. Kelley, director of Biola Counseling Center in La Mirada, California:

1) DID results from a severe trauma, which usually takes place in childhood and often surfaces through controversial “recovered” memories. DID leads to fragmentation into at least two selves (one of whom is often an abused child). That is why survivors of alleged ritual abuse are often diagnosed with DID.

2) DID is a role-playing phenomenon that may or may not be based in a real-life trauma. “Dissociatives” play different roles because they are affirmed for doing so.

3) DID is faked by people who want attention.

4) DID is born in therapy. The disorder is brought on by therapists who use suggestion (intentional and unintentional) through which they end up convincing their patients that they have dissociated identities.

A Demon—or a Split Self?

…Deliverance ministers began to learn about DID from therapists in the 1970s. One of these therapists is Jerry Mungadze, head of a group of Christian clinicians in the Dallas area who treat severe cases of dissociation and ritual abuse.

Having grown up in Zimbabwe, Mungadze is no stranger to power encounters. He believes demons may harass people, but rarely. If someone exhibits symptoms of DID, suffered a trauma in childhood, shows no supernatural powers, and hasn’t made pacts with the Devil, there is no need for exorcism. A deliverance session may only “antagonize the created personas,” Mungadze says.

But DID and demonization aren’t mutually exclusive. By detaching a person from his or her personality, the disorder may open the door to demonic harassment. Even then the safer healing route is restoration of mental health, which gives the afflicted the strength to resist demonic attacks, Mungadze says.

… (See “Pandora’s Box of SRA,” p. 54.)

In counseling DID patients, Kelley became suspicious; it seemed that other therapists clearly had been suggesting fabrications to their clients. When he challenged some of them on it, at least one therapist began spreading rumors that he was a “dirty” doctor. A psychiatrist friend and a secretary confirmed that this therapist was accusing him of being a cult member.

Retrieved 11/06/11.

Man Wrongly Accused of Crimes Against Children Freed After 20 Years

Judge orders Henderson County man freed after 20 years

Citizen-Times |  August 25, 2014   by Romando Dixson reports:

North Carolina, USA. Buncombe County Superior Court frees Michael Parker who “was convicted on all 12 charges in January 1994 and sentenced to eight consecutive terms of life imprisonment for the first-degree sex offenses and an additional 40 years on the indecent liberties convictions … crimes he says he did not commit.”

Parker was tried during the satanic child abuse scare of the 1980s and 90s. He was offered a deal to leave prison last year, but Parker held to his innocence and refused.

“There were procedures and opinions from these doctors a number of years ago that were the trial held today, the medical findings then would not indicate abuse if given today,”  said District Attorney Greg Newman.

 

Full story: Citizen Times

Satanic Ritual Abuse Scare Hit Here Put Man in Prison

Dr. Phil & Multiple Personalities Follow the Discussion on Psych Forums

Dr. Phil re-airs: “My Husband, My Kids, and My Multiple Personalities”

Follow the live discussion on Psych Forums

http://www.psychforums.com/dissociative-identity/topic88072-30.html

Last year a person or persons with multiple personalities complained to wordpress about a post of mine that said multiple personalities don’t exist and I think I also put a link to her blog.

Therefore, I am permanently banned from PsychForums. This is what Psych Forums posts when I try to sign-in:

You have been permanently banned from this board..

Reason given for ban: Being very disrespectful to people with DID by saying it does not exist

Seems to me that Psych Forums should have said I was censored from speaking on their website because I don’t agree with them.

~~~~~~~~~~

Dr. Phil’s website advertizement for people to be on the show. The quote below is from the Dr. Phil website.

Living with Multiple Personalities?

Are you or someone you know struggling with multiple personality disorder, otherwise known as dissociative identity disorder?  Does your family not understand?  Or maybe you haven’t told them about it? Are you comfortable switching between your different personalities? 

~~~~

Although I think multiple personalities are fabrications and a dance between therapist and client rendering them a product of therapy, to exploit patients is not OK. The show has not yet aired where I live so I wait before making further comments.

After viewing: Dr. Phil did a good job bringing reality into the show by pointing out inconsistencies in statements made by alter personalities, by showing the long, long list of medications Tracy has been on and by educating her that there are usually more than one diagnosis for a mental illness, thus suggestion and encouraging her to seek other avenues of treatment. Hopefully she will take advantage of the treatment center he offered.

Psychiatric Misadventures by Paul R. McHugh, M.D.

_PSYCHIATRY IS A RUDIMENTARY MEDICAL ART._ It lacks easy
access to proof of its proposals even as it deals with disorders
of the most complex features of human life--mind and behaviour.
Yet, probably because of the earlier examples of Freud and Jung,
a belief persists that psychiatrists are entitled to special
privileges-that they know the secret of human nature--and thus can
venture beyond their clinic-based competencies to instruct on
non-medical matters: interpreting literature, counselling the
electorate, prescribing for the millennium.
	At The Johns Hopkins University, my better days are spent
teaching psychiatry to residents and medical students. As I attempt
to make clear to them what psychiatrists actually do know and how
they know it, I am often aware that I am drawing them back from
trendy thought, redirecting them from Salvationist aspirations
toward the traditional concerns of psychiatry, which is about the
differentiation, understanding, and treatment of the mentally ill.
	Part of my justification for curbing my students' expansive
impulses is that they have enough to learn, and several things to
unlearn, about patients. Such sciences as epidemiology, genetics,
and neuropharmacology, which support and surround psychiatry today,
are bringing new power to our practice just as science did for
internal medicine and surgery earlier in this century. Only those
physicians with critical capacities--who see the conceptual
structure of this discipline and can distinguish valid from invalid
opinions--will be competent to make use of these new scientific
concepts and technologies in productive ways. I want my students
to number among those who will transform psychiatry in the future.
	But my other justification for corralling their enthusiasms
is the sense that the intermingling of psychiatry with contemporary
culture is excessive and injures both parties. During the thirty
years of my professional experience, I have witnessed the power of
cultural fashion to lead psychiatric thought and practice off in
false, eve disastrous, directions. I have become familiar with how
these fashions and their consequences caused psychiatry to lose its
moorings. Roughly every ten years, from the mid-1960s on,
psychiatric practice has condoned some bizarre misdirection,
proving how all too often the discipline has been the captive of
the culture.
	Each misdirection was the consequence of one of three common
medical mistakes--oversimplification, misplaced emphasis, or pure
invention. Psychiatry may be more vulnerable to such errors than
other clinical endeavours, given its lack of checks and
correctives, such as the autopsies and laboratory tests that
protect other medical specialties. But for each error, cultural
fashion provided the inclination and the impetus. When caught up
by the social suppositions of their time, psychiatrists can do much
harm.

II.

	The most conspicuous misdirection of psychiatric practice--
the precipitate dismissal of patients with severe, chronic mental
disorders such as schizophrenia from psychiatric hospitals--
certainly required a vastly oversimplified view of mental illness.
These actions were defended as efforts to bring "freedom" to these
people, sounding a typical 1960s theme, as though it were not their
illnesses but society that deprived them of freedom in the first
place.
	There were several collaborators in this sad enterprise--
prominent among them the state governments looking for release from
the traditional but heavy fiscal burden of housing the mentally
ill. Crucial to the process were the fashionable opinions of the
time about society's institutions and, specifically, the
oversimplified opinions about schizophrenia and other mental
illnesses generated by the so-called "anti-psychiatrists": Thomas
Szasz, R. D. Laing, Erving Goffman, Michael Foucault, and the rest.
These men provided an acid commentary on psychiatric thought and
practice, which in turn eroded confidence in the spirit of
psychiatric concern for the mentally ill that had previously
generated, and regularly regenerated, advocacy on the part of
mainstream psychiatry for their welfare. This traditional concern
had lasted for more than 120 years in America, or ever since the
1840s crusades led by Dorothea Dix to provide professional services
and humane conditions for the mentally ill.
	The "anti-psychiatry" school depicted mental institutions as
medically useless, self-serving institutions run for the
management, and quite unnecessary for patients. These commentators
scorned social attitudes about the mentally ill and the
contemporary psychiatric practice, but not one of them described
the impairments of mind in patients with schizophrenia,
manic-depressive illness, or with mental retardation or senility.
Data about these impairments were what Dix and an enlightened
public came to emphasize when founding psychiatrically supervised,
state-supported hospitals. These hospitals rescued the mentally ill
from destitution, jails, and the mean streets of cities.
	Description of the mental problems of psychiatric patients was
not the style of the popular 1960s commentators. They were more
interested in painting a picture of their own devising that would
provoke first suspicion and then disdain for contemporary
psychiatric practices and did so, not by producing new standards
or reforming specific practices, but by ridiculing and caricaturing
efforts of the institutions and people at hand just as fashion
directed. The power of their scorn was surprising and had amazing
results, leading many to believe that it was the institutions that
provoked the patients' illnesses rather than the illnesses that
called out for shelter and treatment.
	Here, from Szasz's book, Schizophrenia: The Sacred Symbol of
Psychiatry, is a typical comment:
	"The sense in which I mean that Psychiatry creates
schizophrenia is readily illustrated by the analogy between
institutional psychiatry and involuntary servitude. If there is no
slavery there can be no slaves.... Similarly if there is no
psychiatry there can be no schizophrenics. In other words, the
identity of an individual as a schizophrenic depends on the
existence of the social system of [institutional] psychiatry."
	The only reply to such commentary is to know the patients for
what they are-in schizophrenia, people disabled by delusions,
hallucinations, and disruptions of thinking capacities-and to
reject an approach that would trivialize their impairments and deny
them their frequent need for hospital care.
	On one occasion in the early 1970s, when I was working at
Cornell University Medical Center in New York, a friend and senior
member of the biochemistry faculty called me about a medical
student who was balking over a term paper because his career plan
was to become a champion of the "psychiatrically oppressed."
Biochemistry term papers seemed "irrelevant." Could I offer him a
project with psychiatric patients that might be developed into a
term paper satisfying the requirements of her department? "He's a
neat guy," she said, "but he is stubborn about this and full of
views about contemporary psychiatry." "Send him over," I said, but
I awaited his arrival with some apprehension. I needn't have feared
the encounter because, in contrast to many other students of those
times, he was not looking for a fight. "It's just that I know what
I want to do--understand the people who are isolated by the label
schizophrenia--and help them achieve what they want in life. I've
written enough irrelevant papers in my life," he said. He had
graduated summa cum laude from Princeton, with a concentration i
philosophy, so he certainly had placed a large number of words o
paper.
	"Have you ever seen anyone with schizophrenia?" I asked.
	"Not in the flesh," he said, "but I think I know what you do
with them."
	"Well," I replied, "I will be glad to have you see one, and
let you tell me how to appreciate his choice of an eccentric way
of life that he could be released to express it."
   I had plenty of patients under my care at the time and chose
one who was the same age as the student but who had a severe
disruption in his thought processes. Even to talk with him was a
distressing experience because few of his thoughts were connected,
and all of them were vaguely tied to delusional beliefs about the
world, his family, and our society. He wasn't aggressive or in any
way threatening. He was just bewilderingly incoherent. I left the
student with the patient, promising to return in half an hour to
learn what he thought.
	On my return, I found the student subdued. I started, in a
slightly teasing way, to ask where he suggested I might send the
patient to start his new life-but was quickly cut off by the
student who, finding his voice, said, "That was nothing like what
I expected and nothing like what I've read about. Obviously you
can't send this poor fellow out of the hospital. Please tell me how
you're treating him."
	With this evidence confirming my colleague's judgment of the
student's basic good nature in what, after all, had been a
heartfelt if inexperienced opinion, we went on to talk about the
impairments and disabilities of patients with serious mental
illnesses, their partial responses to combinations of medication
and psychological management, and, finally, to the meretricious
ideas about their treatment that had been promulgated by
contemporary fashion and the anti-psychiatry critics without making
an effort to examine patients.
	The student wrote his biochemistry paper on emerging concepts
of the neurochemistry of mental disorders. He buckled down in
medical school, and he came, after graduation, to join me as a
resident psychiatrist and eventually proved to be one of the best
doctors I ever taught. We had overcome something together--all out
of going to see a patient, recognizing his burdens, and avoiding
assumptions about what fashion said we should find.
	A saving grace for any medical theory or practice--the thing
that spares it perpetual thraldom to the gusty winds of fashion--
is the patients. They are real, they are around, and a knowledge
of their distressing symptoms guards against oversimplification.

III.

	The claim that schizophrenic patients are in any sense living
a alternative "life style" that our institutions were inhibiting
was of course fatuous. It is now obvious to every citizen of our
cities that these patients have impaired capacities to comprehend
the world and that they need protection and serious active
treatment. Without such help, they drift back to precisely the
place Dorothea Dix found them 150 years ago.
	From the faddish idea of institutions as essentially
oppressive emerged a nuance that became more dominant as the 1970s
progressed. This was that social custom was itself oppressive. In
fact, according to this view, all standards by which behaviours are
judged are simply matters of opinion--and emotional opinions at
that, likely to be enforced but never justified. In the 1970s, this
antinomian idea fuelled several psychiatric misdirections.
	A challenge to standards can affect at least the discourse in
a psychiatric clinic, if not the practice. These challenges are
expressed in such slogans as "Do your own thing," "Whose life is
it anyway?" "Be sure to get your own," or Joseph Campbell's "Follow
your bliss." All of these slogans are familiar to psychiatrists
trying to redirect confused, depressed, and often self-belittling
patients. Such is their pervasiveness in the culture that they may
even divert psychiatrists into misplaced emphases in their
understanding of patients.
	This interrelationship of cultural antinomianism and a
psychiatric misplaced emphasis is seen at its grimmest in the
practice known as sex-reassignment surgery. I happen to know about
this because Johns Hopkins was one of the places in the United
States where this practice was given its start. It was part of my
intention, when I arrived in Baltimore in 1975, to help end it.
	Not uncommonly, a person comes to the clinic and says
something like, "As long as I can remember, I've thought I was in
the wrong body. True, I've married and had a couple of kids, and
I've had a number of homosexual encounters, but always, in the back
and now more often in the front of my mind, there's this idea that
actually I'm more a woman than a man."
	When we ask what he has done about this, the man often says,
"I've tried dressing like a woman and feel quite comfortable. I've
eve made myself up and gone out in public. I can get away with it
because it's all so natural to me. I'm here because all this male
equipment is disgusting to me. I want medical help to change my
body: hormone treatments, silicone implants, surgical amputation
of my genitalia, and the construction of a vagina. Will you do it?"
The patient claims it is a torture for him to live as a man,
especially now that he has read in the newspapers about the
possibility of switching surgically to womanhood. Upon examination
it is not difficult to identify other mental and personality
difficulties in him, but he is primarily disquieted because of his
intrusive thoughts that his sex is not a settled issue in his life.
	Experts say that "gender identity," a sense of one's own
maleness or femaleness, is complicated. They believe that it will
emerge through the step-like features of most complex developmental
processes in which nature and nurture combine. They venture that,
although their research on those born with genital and hormonal
abnormalities may not apply to a person with normal bodily
structures, something must have gone wrong in this patient's early
and formative life to cause him to feel as he does. Why not help
him look more like what he says he feels? Our surgeons can do it.
What the hell!
	The skills of our plastic surgeons, particularly on the
genito-urinary system, are impressive. They were obtained, however,
not to treat the gender identity problem, but to repair congenital
defects, injuries, and the effects of destructive diseases such as
cancer in this region of the body.
	That you can get something done doesn't always mean that you
should do it. In sex reassignment cases, there are so many problems
right at the start. The patient's claim that this has been a
lifelong problem is seldom checked with others who have known him
since childhood. It seems so intrusive and untrusting to discuss
the problem with others, even though they might provide a better
gage of the seriousness of the problem, how it emerged, its
fluctuations of intensity over time, and its connection with other
experiences. When you discuss what the patient means by "feeling
like a woman," you often get a sex stereotype in return--something
that woman physicians note immediately is a male caricature of
women's attitudes and interests. One of our patients, for example,
said that, as a woman, he would be more "invested with being than
with doing."
	It is not obvious how this patient's feeling that he is a
woman trapped in a man's body differs from the feeling of a patient
with anorexia nervosa that she is obese despite her emaciated,
cachectic state. We don't do liposuction on anorexics. Why amputate
the genitals of these poor men? Surely, the fault is in the mind
not the member.
	Yet, if you justify augmenting breasts for women who feel
underendowed, why not do it and more for the man who wants to be
a woman? A plastic surgeon at Johns Hopkins provided the voice of
reality for me on this matter based on his practice and his natural
awe at the mystery of the body. One day while we were talking about
it, he said to me: "Imagine what it's like to get up at dawn and
think about spending the day slashing with a knife at perfectly
well-formed organs, because you psychiatrists do not understand
what is the problem here but hope surgery may do the poor wretch
some good."
	The zeal for this sex-change surgery--perhaps, with the
exception of frontal lobotomy, the most radical therapy ever
encouraged by twentieth century psychiatrists--did not derive from
critical reasoning or thoughtful assessments. These were so faulty
that no one holds them up anymore as standards for launching any
therapeutic exercise, let alone one so irretrievable as a
sex-change operation. The energy came from the fashions of the
seventies that invaded the clinic--if you can do it and he wants
it, why not do it? It was all tied up with the spirit of doing your
thing, following your bliss, an aesthetic that sees diversity as
everything and can accept any idea, including that of permanent sex
change, as interesting and that views resistance to such ideas as
uptight if not oppressive. Moral matters should have some salience
here. These include the waste of human resources; the confusions
imposed on society where these men/women insist on acceptance, even
in athletic competition, with women; the encouragement of the
"illusion of technique," which assumes that the body is like a suit
of clothes to be hemmed and stitched to style; and, finally, the
ghastliness of the mutilated anatomy.
	But lay these strong moral objections aside and consider only
that this surgical practice has distracted effort from genuine
investigations attempting to find out just what has gone wrong for
these people--what has, by their testimony, given them years of
torment and psychological distress and prompted them to accept
these grim and disfiguring surgical procedures.
	We need to know how to prevent such sadness, indeed horror.
We have to learn how to manage this condition as a mental disorder
when we fail to prevent it. If it depends on child rearing, then
let's hear about its inner dynamics so that parents can be taught
to guide their children properly. If it is an aspect of confusion
tied to homosexuality, we need to understand its nature and exactly
how to manage it as a manifestation of serious mental disorder
among homosexual individuals.  But instead of attempting to learn
enough to accomplish these worthy goals, psychiatrists collaborated
in a exercise of folly with distressed people during a time when
"do your own thing" had something akin to the force of a command.
As physicians, psychiatrists, when they give in to this, abandon
the role of protecting patients from their symptoms and become
little more than technicians working on behalf of a cultural force.

IV.

	Medical errors of oversimplification and misplaced emphasis
usually play themselves out for all to see. But the pure inventions
bring out a darker, hateful potential when psychiatric thought goes
awry. The invention of entities of mind and then their elaborate
description, usually fuelled by the energy from some social
attitude they amplify, is a recurring event in the history of
psychiatry.
	Most psychiatric histories choose to describe such invention
by detailing its most vivid example--witches. The experience in
Salem, Massachusetts, of three hundred years ago is prototypical.
Briefly, in 1692, several young women and girls who had for some
weeks been secretly listening to tales of spells, voodoo, and
illicit cultic practices from a Barbados slave suddenly displayed
a set of mystifying mental and behavioural changes. They developed
trance-like states, falling on the ground and flailing away, and
screaming at night and at prayer, seemingly in great distress and
in need of help. The local physician, who witnessed this, was as
bewildered as anyone else and eventually made a diagnosis of
"bewitchment." "The evil hand is on them," he said and turned them
over to the local officials for care.
	The clergy and magistrates, regarding the young people as
victims and pampering them by showing much attention to their
symptoms, assumed that local agents of Satan were at work and,
using as grounds the answers to leading questions, indicted several
citizens. The accepted proof of guilt was bizarre. The young women
spoke of visions of the accused, of sensing their presence at night
by pains and torments and of ghostly visitations to their homes,
all occurring while the accused were known to be elsewhere. The
victims even screeched out in court that they felt pinches and
pains provoked by the accused, even while they were sitting quietly
across the room. Judges believed this "spectral" evidence because
it conformed to contemporary thought about the capacities of
witches; they dismissed all denials of the accused and promptly
executed them.
	The whole exercise should have been discredited when, after
the executions, there was no change in the distraught behaviour of
the young women. Instead more and more citizens were indicted. A
prosecution depending on "spectral evidence" was at last seen as
capricious--as irrefutable as it was undemonstrable. The trials
ceased, and eventually several of the young women admitted that
their beliefs had been "delusions" and their accusations false.
	The modern diagnosis for these young women is, of course,
hysteria not bewitchment. Psychiatrists use the term hysteria to
identify behavioural displays in which physical or mental disorders
are imitated. The reasons for the behaviour vary with the person
displaying the disorder but are derived from that person's more or
less unconscious effort to appear more significant to others and
to be more entitled to their interest and support. The status of
the putatively bewitched in Salem of 1692 brought both attentive
concern and license to indict to young women previously scarcely
noticed by the community. The forms of hysterical behavior--whether
they be physical activities, such as falling and shaking, or mental
phenomena, such as pains, visions, or memories--are shaped by
unintended suggestions from others and sustained by the attention
of onlookers--especially such onlookers as doctors who are socially
empowered to assign, by affixing a diagnosis, the status of
"patient" to a person. Whenever these diagnosticians mistake
hysteria for what it is attempting to imitate-misidentifying it
either as a physical illness or inventing some psychological
explanation such as bewitchment--then the behavioural display will
continue, expand, and, in certain settings, spread to others. The
usual result is trouble for everyone.
	During the last seven or eight years, another example of
misidentified hysterical behaviour has surfaced and again has been
bolstered by an invented view of its cause that fits a cultural
fashion. This condition is "multiple personality disorder" (MPD,
as it has come to be abbreviated). The majority of the patients who
eventually receive this diagnosis come to therapists with standard
psychiatric complaints, such as depression or difficulty in
relationships. Some therapists see much more in these symptoms and
suggest to the patient and to others that they represent the subtle
actions of several alternative personalities, or "alters,"
co-existing in the patient's mental life. These suggestions
encourage many patients to see their problems in a fresh and, to
them, remarkably interesting way. Suddenly they are transformed
into odd people with repeated shifts of demeanour and deportment
that they display on command.
	Sexual politics in the 1980s and 1990s, particularly those
connected with sexual oppression and victimization, galvanizes
these inventions. Forgotten sexual mistreatment in childhood is
the most frequently proffered explanation of MPD. Just as an
epidemic of bewitchment served to prove the arrival of Satan in
Salem, so in our day an epidemic of MPD is used to confirm that a
vast number of adults were sexually abused by guardians during
their childhood. Now I don't for a moment deny that children are
sometimes victims of sexual abuse, or that a behavioural problem
originating from such abuse can be a hidden feature in any life.
Such realities are not at issue. What I am concerned with here is
what has been imagined from these realities and inventively applied
to others.
	Adults with MPD, so the theory goes, were assaulted as young
children by a trusted and beloved person--usually a father, but
grandfathers, uncles, brothers, or others, often abetted by women
in their power, are also possibilities. This sexual assault, the
theory holds, is blocked from memory (repressed and dissociated)
because it was so shocking. This dissociating blockade itself--
again according to the theory--destroys the integration of mind and
evokes multiple personalities as separate, disconnected,
sequestered, "alternative" collections of thought, memory, and
feeling. These resultant distinct "personalities" produce a variety
of what might seem standard psychiatric symptoms--depression,
weight problems, panic states, demoralization, and so forth--that
only careful review will reveal to be expressions of MPD that is
the outcome of sexual abuse.
	These patients have not come to treatment reporting a sexual
assault in childhood. Only after therapy has promoted MPD behaviour
is the possibility that they were sexually abused as children
suggested to them. From recollections of the mists of childhood,
a vague sense of vulnerability may slowly emerge, facilitated and
encouraged by the treating group. This sense of vulnerability is
thought a harbinger of clearer memories of victimization that,
although buried, have been active for decades producing the
different "personalities." The long supposedly forgotten abuse is
finally "remembered" after months of "uncovering" therapy, during
which long conversations by the therapist with "alter"
personalities take place. Any other actual proof of the assault is
thought unnecessary. Spectral evidence-developed through
suggestions and just as irrefutable as that at Salem-once again is
sanctioned.
	Like bewitchment from Satan's local agents, the idea of MPD
and its cause has caught on among large numbers of psychiatrists
and psychotherapists. Its partisans see the patients as victims,
cosset them in groups, encourage more expressions of "alters" (up
to as many as eighty or ninety), and are ferocious toward any
defenders of those they believe are perpetrators of the abuse. Just
as the divines of Massachusetts were convinced that they were
fighting Satan by recognizing bewitchment, so the contemporary
divines--these are therapists--are confident that they are fighting
perpetrators of a common expression of sexual oppression, child
abuse, by recognizing MPD.
	The incidence of MPD has of late indeed taken on epidemic
proportions, particularly in certain treatment centers. Whereas its
diagnosis was reported less than two hundred times from a variety
of supposed causes in the last century, it has been applied to more
than 20,000 people in the last decade and largely attributed to
sexual abuse.
	I have been involved in direct and indirect ways with five
such cases in the past year alone. In every one, the very same
story has been played out in a stereotyped script-like way. In each
a young woman with a rather straightforward set of psychiatric
symptoms--depression and demoralization--sought help and her case
was stretched into a diagnosis of MPD. Eventually, in each example,
an accusation of prior sexual abuse was levelled by her against her
father. The accusation developed after months of therapy, first as
vague feelings of a dream-like kind--childhood reminiscences of
danger and darkness eventually crystallizing, sometimes "in a
flash," into a recollection of father forcing sex upon the patient
as a child. No other evidence of these events was presented but the
memory, and plenty of refuting testimony, coming from former
nursemaids and the mother, was available but dismissed.
	On one occasion, the identity of the molester--forgotten for
years and now first vaguely and then more surely remembered under
the persuasive power of therapy--changed, but the change was as
telling about the nature of evidence as was the emergence of the
original charge. A woman called her mother to claim that she had
come to realize that when she was young she was severely and
repeatedly sexually molested by her uncle, the mother's brother.
The mother questioned the daughter carefully about the dates and
times of these incidents and then set about determining whether
they were in fact possible. She soon discovered that her brother
was on military service in Korea at the time of the alleged abuse.
With this information, the mother went to her daughter with the
hope of showing her that her therapist was misleading her in
destructive ways. When she heard this new information, the daughter
seemed momentarily taken aback, but then said, "I see, Mother. Yes.
Well, let me think. If your dates are right, I suppose it must have
been Dad." And with that, she began to claim that she had been a
victim of her father's abusive attentions, and nothing could
dissuade her.
	The accused men whom I studied, denying the charges and amazed
at their source, submitted to detailed reviews of their sexual
lives and polygraphic testing to try to prove their innocence and
thereby erase doubts about themselves. Professional requests by me
to the daughters' therapists for better evidence of the abuse were
dismissed as derived from the pleadings of the guilty and scorned
as beneath contempt, given that the diagnosis of MPD and the
testimony of the patients patently confirmed the assumptions.
	In Salem, the conviction depended on how judges thought
witches behaved. In our day, the conviction depends on how some
therapists think a child's memory of trauma works. In fact, severe
traumas are not blocked out by children but remembered all too
well. They are amplified in consciousness, remaining like grief to
be reborn and reemphasized on anniversaries and in settings that
can simulate the environments where they occurred. Good evidence
for this is found in the memories of children from concentration
camps. More recently, the children of Chowchilla, California, who
were kidnapped in their school bus and buried in sand for many
hours, remembered every detail of their traumatic experience and
needed psychiatric assistance, not to bring out forgotten material
that was repressed, but to help them move away from a constant
ruminative preoccupation with the experience .
	Many psychiatrists upon first hearing of these diagnostic
formulations (MPD being the result of repressed memories of sexual
abuse in childhood) have fallen back upon what they think is a
evenhanded way of approaching it. "The mind is very mysterious in
its ways," they say. "Anything is possible in a family." In fact,
this credulous stance toward evidence and the failure to consider
the alternative of hysterical behaviours and memories are what
continue to support this crude psychiatric analysis.
	The helpful clinical approach to the patient with putative
MPD, as with any instance of hysterical display, is to direct
attention away from the behaviour--one simply never talks to an
"alter." Within a few days of a consistent therapeutic emphasis
away from the MPD behaviour, it fades and generally useful
psychotherapy on the presenting true problems begins. Real sexual
traumas can be dealt with, if they are present, as can the
ambivalent and confused feelings that many adults have about their
parents.
	Similarly, the proper approach to end epidemics of MPD and the
assumptions of a vast prevalence of sexual abuse in ordinary
families is for psychiatrists to be aware of the potential,
whenever we are dealing with hysteria, to mistake it for something
else. When it is so mistaken, this can lead to monstrous concepts
defended by coincidence, the induction of memories, and a display
of "spectral" evidence--all to justify a belief that the community
is under siege. This belief, of course, is what releases the power
of the witches' court and the Lynch mob.
	As a corrective, psychiatrists need only review with a patient
how the MPD behaviour was diagnosed and how the putative memories
of sexual abuse were suggested. These practices will eventually be
discredited, and this epidemic will end in the same way that the
witch trials ended in Salem. But time is passing, many families are
being hurt, and confidence in the competence and impartiality of
psychiatry is eroding.

V.

	Major psychiatric misdirections often share this intimidating
mixture of a medical mistake lashed to a trendy idea. Any challenge
to such a misdirection must confront simultaneously the
professional authority of the proponents and the political power
of fashionable convictions. Such challenges are not for the
fainthearted or inexperienced. They seldom quickly succeed because
they are often misrepresented as ignorant or, in the cant word of
our day, uncaring. Each of the three misdirections I have dealt
with in this essay ran for a full decade, despite vigorous
criticism. Eventually the mischief became obvious to nearly
everyone and fashion moved on to attach itself to something else.
	In ten years much damage can be done and much effort over a
longer period of time is required to repair it. Thus with the
mentally-ill homeless, only a new crusade and social commitment
will bring them adequate help again. Age accentuates the sad
caricature of the sexual reassigned and saps their bravado. Some,
pathetically, ask about re-reassignment. Groups of parents falsely
accused of sexual mistreatment by their grown children are
gathering together to fight back in ways that will produce dramatic
but distressing spectacles. How good it would have been if in the
first place all these misguided programs had been avoided or at
least their spa abbreviated.
	Psychiatry, it needs always to be remembered, is a medical
discipline--capable of glorious medical triumphs and hideous
medical mistakes. We psychiatrists don't know the secret of human
nature. We cannot build a New Jerusalem. But we can teach the
lessons of our past. We can describe how our explanations for
mental disorders are devised and develop--where they are strong and
where they are vulnerable to misuse. We can clarify the
presumptions about what we know and how we know it. We can strive
within the traditional responsibilities of our profession to build
a sound relationship with people who consult us--placing them on
more equal terms with us and encouraging them to approach us as
they would any other medical specialists, by asking questions and
expecting answers, based on science, about our assumptions,
practices, and plans. With effort and good sense, we can construct
a clinical discipline that, while delivering less to fashion, will
bring more to patients and their families.

------------------------------------------------------------

PAUL R. McHUGH is Henry Phipps Professor and Director of the
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences at the Johns
Hopkins University School of Medicine. He is the author (with
Phillip R. Slavney) of _The Perspectives of Psychiatry and
Psychiatric Polarities._ This article is from The _American
Scholar,_ Autumn 1992.

Dr. McHugh holds the copyright. Reprint with permission.
.
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